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metallurgical microscope

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The prepared sections were examined on a metallurgical microscope for evaluation of the failure mode, the microstructure, and the threaded region, especially under the nut. Four hanger rods removed from a cooling tower at a southeastern utility were examined for the cause of failure. The rods were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... a metallurgical microscope at magnifications up to 1000×. The purpose of this examination was to evaluate the microstructure. Microcleaniness was rated on the unetched structure in accordance with ASTM E45-87, method A, plate III. The microcleanliness ratings were as follows: Type A inclusions (sulfides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.../Identification Material and Weld Metallography Microstructural Analysis Sections were cut from the expansion joint and prepared for metallographic examination by grinding, polishing, and etching. The prepared sections were examined using a metallurgical microscope to assess microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... which is driven by the motor through a flexible shaft. Our metallurgical laboratory did not possess a true portable metallurgical microscope so one had to be found which could be used to examine the weldment on-site so areas could be chosen for replication. The Zeiss EPI optical microscope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the original defect. The microscopic examination furnished the clue and solution to problem of patchy hardness in induction hardening due to decarburisation of the outer surfaces, and shows the importance of this simple yet powerful tool of the metallurgical microscope in the hands of a Works Metallurgist...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract An extensive metallurgical investigation was carried out on samples of a failed roller bearing from the support and tilting system of a basic oxygen furnace converter used in the steel melting shop of an integrated steel plant. The converter bearing was fabricated from low-carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... in the coarsegrain portion of the HAZ. The microstructure was found to be severely embrittled and severely gassed in an area around the crack. The microstructure of the metal in the head was revealed to be banded and contained spheroidal carbides. The lower head was established by hardness values and microscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... elements, were made from GCr15 bearing steel. The bearing also included a machined brass (MA/C3) cage and was packed with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) lithium grease. Metallurgical structures and chemical compositions of the bearing’s matrix materials were inspected using a microscope and photoelectric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... could not be safely returned to service. Material, samples from the bore were analyzed to evaluate the actual mechanical properties and to determine the metallurgical cause of the observed indications. Samples were examined in a scanning electron microscope and subjected to chemical analysis and several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the bulge area was prepared for metallographic evaluation by grinding, polishing, and etching. The prepared section was examined using a metallurgical microscope to evaluate the failure mode, microstructure, and internal and external surface conditions. The typical microstructure of the bulged area, shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The pieces were mounted, ground, and polished using standard metallurgical techniques. The polished sections were examined on a metallurgical microscope for evaluation of microstructure. Figure 4 shows the typical microstructure observed in the aluminum pieces. The structure consists of dendrites...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... metallurgical microscope. The transverse sections of all of the samples were ground and mechanically polished by conventional metallographic procedures. The polished samples were etched in 2% nital solution for microstructural examinations. Samples were taken both from heel and edge portions of the angle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., etched, and then examined using a metallurgical microscope to evaluate the microstructure, crack morphology, and inside and outside diameter surface conditions. The typical microstructure of the cooler tube is shown in Fig. 2 ; it consisted of equiaxed alpha grains with annealing twins...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Initial investigation showed that a landing gear failure was the result of a hard landing with no evidence of contributory factors. The objective of reexamination was to determine whether there was any evidence of metallurgical failure. The landing gear was primarily an AISI type 6150...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... broken across the eighth hole (of nine holes) from the end of the plate. The detailed metallurgical failure analysis of the device, including metallography and fractography, is reported here. It was found that the device had adequate metallurgical integrity for the application for which it was intended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... Macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical examination revealed composition that was basically within the normal range for 4150 steel. This evidence supports the conclusion that cracking initiated at a location approximately opposite the keyway, and final fracture was due to mixed ductile and brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046963
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... into the rim and web areas. Because there was no apparent metallurgical cause for the cracking, the problem was assigned to engineering. Spacers Striations Turbines Incoloy 901 UNS N09901 AMS 5661 UNS N09901 Fatigue fracture A turbine spacer made of AMS 5661 alloy (Incoloy 901; composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the wire rope adjacent to the fracture. Fatigue cracks originating from both sides of the wire were revealed by microscopic examination of a longitudinal section of a wire. The diam of the sheave on the bale (27 cm) was found to be slightly below that specified for the 11 mm diam rope. It was observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and Results Surface Examination Mechanical Properties Hardness Chemical Analysis/Identification Metallography Transverse ring sections were cut from both ends of tubes T2 and T4. Each section was ground, polished, etched, and examined on a metallurgical microscope for evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A SEM image captured at the probable flaking initiation on the outer race of the bearing is shown in Fig. 5a . A SEM image of the remaining portion of the flaking is shown in Fig. 5b . Samples were appropriately sectioned from the outer ring at locations close...