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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... optimal areas upon which to focus for sectioning and metallography in order to further investigate the condition of the component. This article provides information on the inspection method available for failure analysis, including standard methods such as visual testing, penetrant testing, and magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or by sectioning and preparing the specimen for scanning electron microscopic examination and/or metallography. It is important to photograph the component at each stage of the cleaning or sectioning processes to retain the characteristic information available for the component at each step of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electron microscopy Look for evidence of usual or unusual crack paths, manufacturing imperfections, or service damage Before metallography Optical metallography Determine whether microstructure is consistent with expectations based on crack path evidence After scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Vander Voort G.F. ( 1986 ). The SEM as a Metallographic Tool . In: Applied Metallography Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. , pp. 139 – 170 10.1007/978-1-4684-9084-8_10 2. Vander Voort G.F. ( 1984 (reprinted by ASM International, 1999). Metallography: Principles and Practice McGraw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compiled, compared, and interpreted. Occasionally, a customer might ask only for the raw data, but typically, some level of analysis of the information is requested. Although individual tests and analyses are discrete (for example, hardness testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Kraemer M. , A Comparison of Different Physical-Chemical Methods of Etching for Silicon Nitride Ceramics , Pract. Metallogr. , Vol 27 , 1990 , p 385 – 390 13. Quantitative Metallography , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , American Society for Metals , 1985...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... well as field metallography including replication and sample removal can identify if characteristics associated with damage are present. (These techniques are discussed in detail in the division “Tools and Techniques in Failure Analysis” in this Volume.) Table 1 Characteristics of fracture and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination revealed numerous cracks in the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of the welds. Metallography and EDS again revealed the presence of zinc in the intergranular cracks. The pipe surfaces were found to contain spatters of the zinc-rich primer, and when welding was performed through spattered regions, LMIE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... seems to occur when the damaging effect of dissolved hydrogen is superimposed on the stresses that accompany the austenite-to-martensite transformation. Hairline cracking is readily recognized by metallography and is most common near the center of fairly bulky components, where constraint of plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the burst tube showed evidence of IGSCC initiating at the OD, as shown in Fig. 10(b) . Optical metallography revealed IGA under ridgelike deposits, shown in Fig. 10(c) . Deposit analysis indicated a slightly alkaline to a very alkaline (caustic) environment. Environmental impurities consisting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2