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metallographic techniques

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , May 1972 , p 39 – 47 Metallographic examination typically should follow nondestructive and macroscopic examination procedures and should precede use of techniques of electron microscopy. Because the metallographer also cannot predict in advance what the microstructural examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-corrosion cracking of low-alloy steel turbine discs has emerged as a generic concern in nuclear generating stations. An investigation that made extensive use of field metallographic techniques to examine suspected cracking in such a component is described. The crack position, and its relationship to surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., is presented. As an example, the materials and metallographic techniques employed in an actual on-site investigation of a gas tungsten-arc weldment joining two large diameter Ti-6Al-4V alloy cylinders are discussed in depth to illustrate what can be accomplished. Cylinders Field Metallography Welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract In this article, we report the outcome of an investigation made to uncover the premature fracture of crusher jaws produced in a local foundry. A crusher jaw that had failed while in service was studied through metallographic techniques to determine the cause of the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0047328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in the neck between the cylindrical part and the collar. Cracks were revealed by magnetic-particle inspection. As a rule, several parallel cracks had appeared, some of which were very fine. The part played by corrosion in the formation of the cracks was demonstrated with the help of metallographic techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... microstructural examination, since coating degeneration effects, including the soundness of the coating-substrate interface, can readily be identified by this technique. Metallographic examination in the etched condition provides useful information pertaining to service-induced microstructural degradation, e.g...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that had cracked. No further cracking was found. A 3.4-m (11-ft) section including the cracked area was removed from the line. From this, boat samples and several ring sections were removed for examination, including the cracked region. Conventional metallographic techniques were used to assess...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Superheaters Welded joints 2.25Cr-1Mo Creep fracture/stress rupture Introduction Results and Discussion Metallographic Failure Analysis Post-Exposure Creep-Rupture Properties Conclusions References References 1. Henry J. F. , “ Field Metallography: The Applied Techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sections were prepared in accordance with standard metallographic techniques. They were examined unetched and etched at magnifications up to 1000×. Gear tooth MLR-28 was examined at the suspected fracture origin and along the pitch face. In the unetched condition, the fracture surface appeared...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... spectrographic techniques in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study describes those metallographic and SEM analysis techniques for determining the mode of failure for a locomotive traction motor by LME. References References 1. Staub B. , Mikroskopische...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stress on the steering arm should have been performed. Insuring an adequate inspection procedure prior to release of the design for manufacture could also have prevented failures. The use of metallographic techniques would have shown the presence of oxide scale in the critical section, and an effective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0091092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... that installation had been 1 to 2 years prior to the failure. The shaft material was verified as tempered 4150 steel by using wet chemical analysis and metallographic techniques. The hardness and the microstructure were surveyed by preparing metallographic specimens from the fractured hub section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... appearances in-between. However, wires are often mechanically damaged after failure. Most nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are not applicable to wire rope failures. Electron microscope fractography of fracture surfaces is essential in failure analysis. Fatigue is the most important fracture mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel and copper alloys, in contact with a variety of liquids, chemistries, and substances. Analytical techniques employed include stereoscopic examination, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), temperature and pH testing, and metallographic analysis. The findings indicate that MIC is frequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... after 2500 to 6400 h of operation. Investigation (visual inspection, metallographic examination, and stress analysis) supported the conclusion that the differing microstructure of the airfoil resulted in changes in mechanical properties. Because normal operation includes cycling of loads...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to carbonation of the concrete and depassivation by chloride ions. The first portion of this paper presents information, using metallographic techniques, on the depassivation of reinforcing steel in the presence of Cl − ions. Although there are no reports of failures in primary elements of structural concrete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 156 – 191 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509 • Vander Voort G.F. , Metallographic Techniques in Failure Analysis , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... cracked deck sockets were provided to the division for analysis. Other specimens were provided as circular plate sections containing the crack and the crack-initiation surface. Specimens were examined by various fractographic and metallographic techniques. Fracture specimens were cut from deck sockets...