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metallographic specimens

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... hydrogen attack and oxygen decarburization. A ring specimen was cut off from a high pressure line of unalloyed steel St 55.25 and was tested for hydrogen attack. The high pressure line was used for a gas mixture leaving the pressure vessel of an ammonia synthesis installation. The pressure of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and inspection. The crack indications were found only on one side of the boss and on the lower portion of the hot-spun dome region. The metallographic specimens revealed triangular voids and severe intergranular cracks. The cracks displayed the glossy surfaces typical of melted and resolidified...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... C (375 deg F) and the solution contained approximately 700 ppm chlorides. Liquid penetrant inspection of the pipeline showed the leaks were numerous and confined adjacent to the welds. A metallographic specimen from the circumferential weld showed the cracks initiated at the inside surface. In...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... butt welds. Metallographic specimens were prepared from the welds to examine the microstructure and nature of the cracks. The cooking liquor at the inlet cone contained over ppm chlorides and was aggressive to 304 stainless steel. The cracking was identified as chloride-induced SCC. The inlet cone was...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Part 40B is the piece cut out from between the two parts shown in Figure 4a . Part 40B 1 was then examined metallographically as shown in Figures 5 , 6 and 7 . Fig. 5 The metallographic specimen, 40B 1 , after polishing and etching showing a general view of the cracks that grew from the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... production since the Bessemer process could not use scrap. Conventional metallographic methods were used to prepare specimens taken from Waipio Point in March 1998, and September 1999. Etching was done with 2% nital after grinding and polishing. Photographs of the sections from which samples W1 and W3 were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Nondestructive metallographic examination of materials frequently must be performed on-site when the component in question cannot be moved or destructively examined. Often, it is imperative that specific microstructural information (i.e., material type, heat treatment condition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... associated with specimens with the notch transverse to the rolling direction, as described in Table 4 . Fig. 8 Banded microstructure of the flange. The notch in Sample “A” was parallel to the rolling direction, and the notch in Sample “B” was transverse to the rolling direction Table 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to room temperature in this unit. The fracture had the typical flat-gray fibrous structure of a material destroyed by hydrogen. Specimens for the metallographic investigation showed that the structure appeared to have been loosened by intergranular separations. DVM notched impact specimens from the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... failures whereby components that cracked either during or immediately after the heat treatment/quenching operation were sectioned for metallographic examination of the microstructure to examine the degree of phase transformation. Examination of premature tensile specimen failures by scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., ultrasonic shear wave testing, and surface plastic replication techniques were employed. Boat specimens were removed from the longitudinl weld seam both in the failed course and in courses that showed no visible distress for detailed metallographic examination. Boat specimens also were removed from the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... temperature estimates were reasonable and suggested that quantitative microscopy, aided by selective etching, might permit a more precise estimate of the degree of thermal exposure. Subsequently, the writer obtained the metallographic specimen from Dr. G. E. Korth of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... each side of the furnace and were spaced on 30-cm (12-in.) centers. They were made of RA 333 alloy. Fig. 1 Section of an RA 333 radiant tube that corroded in a heating furnace. Top: hole corroded in tube wall and locations where three metallographic specimens were removed. Bottom: specimens...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... deg C (850 to 1100 deg F). Examination included visual inspection, macrograph of a nital-etched specimen from an as-received chain link 1.85x, micrographs of a nital-etched specimen from an as-received chain link 100x/600x, normal microstructure of as-cast standard austenitic manganese steel 100x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... rope was found to have cracked extensively after 1 year of service. The terminal was sectioned, and specimens were mounted for metallographic examination. Selected Reference • Warke W. R. , Stress-Corrosion Cracking , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0046953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... would have lowered the melting point of the alloy markedly) or by overheating. A small specimen containing melted and unmelted metal was removed from the vessel wall and examined metallographically. It was observed that the interface between the melted zone and the unaffected base metal was composed of...