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metallographic preparation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the keyway surfaces. Microstructural details were revealed by the use of field metallographic preparation techniques and replicated by acetate foil for examination with optical and scanning electron microscopes. It was possible by these techniques to establish the cracking mechanism as stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and electrolytic polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination can be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... performed on-site required specialized equipment, and the careful development of metallographic preparation procedures. These procedures should be designed to minimize the damage to the material being analyzed, and at the same time, furnish sound microstructural information to make engineering decisions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was asked to look for copper penetration but did not understand the failure mechanism. The axle was sectioned into nearly 60 pieces, and two were prepared metallographically (but very poorly) and examined using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). No evidence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microanalysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Features Corrosion and Wear Damage Features Analysis of Base Material Composition Metallurgical Samples and Hardness Preparation and Examination of Metallographic Specimens in Failure Analysis Analysis and Interpretation of Microstructures Evaluation of Polymers in Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... The fractures initiate in the shear band as clearly evidenced by the metallographically prepared pins ( Figure 7 ). The dimples on the shear bands were partially formed and widely spaced, indicating a lack of adequate adhesion ( Figure 4 ). The fracture appearance of the shear band is similar to a channel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the welded joints in wrap tests. The welded wire was annealed by resistance heating. The wire ends had a chisel shape, produced by the use of sidecutters. Tests of the heat treatment temperatures showed that the wire near the weld area exceeded 775 deg C (1425 deg F). Metallographic examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract AISI type 321 stainless steel heat exchanger tubes failed after only three months of service. Macroscopic examination revealed that the leaks were the result of localized pitting attack originating at the water side surfaces of the tubes. Metallographic sections were prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., testing, and inspection. The crack indications were found only on one side of the boss and on the lower portion of the hot-spun dome region. The metallographic specimens revealed triangular voids and severe intergranular cracks. The cracks displayed the glossy surfaces typical of melted and resolidified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Countersunk riveted joints in aluminum sheet are widely employed in the aircraft industry. The preparation of the sheet for the riveting process consists either of countersinking where the sheet is sufficiently thick or of dimpling. Metallographic assessment of dimple defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... and the butt welds. Metallographic specimens were prepared from the welds to examine the microstructure and nature of the cracks. The cooking liquor at the inlet cone contained over ppm chlorides and was aggressive to 304 stainless steel. The cracking was identified as chloride-induced SCC. The inlet cone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The interior surface of a type 316L stainless steel trailer barrel used to haul various chemicals showed evidence of severe pitting after less than 1 year of service. Two sections were cut from the barrel and microscopically examined. Metallographic sections were also prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the aluminum entered the tin was available, no recommendations could be made. Aluminum Impurities Tubes 99.90 Sn Intergranular fracture Brittle fracture 1. Description of Damage 2. Metallographic Preparation 3. Metallographic and Chemical Investigations 4. Conclusions Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A longitudinal section of the failed tube section through a tight transverse crack (crack A) at the toe of a weld adjacent to the header was mounted in thermosetting epoxy and metallographically prepared. In addition, a transverse section of each tube section near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the unetched metallographically prepared surface. It can be seen that in the lower sheet the steel in the limited region of the heat affected zone of the welded seam has been attacked from both sides. The sectional micrograph in Fig. 4 clearly shows the grain boundary break-up typical of grain disintegration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and solderable tin coatings. Microstructural Analysis In order to determine the construction integrity and material failure mode of the resistor chips, transverse sections of samples from each of the groups were metallographically prepared. Examination was performed with a calibrated metallurgical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... be made. The scale obliterated all of the features of this area, resulting in a bland topography. After SEM examination, two of the three fracture sections were mounted to show the fracture surface in cross section and metallographically prepared. The microstructure of the steel was tempered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was never explained. Fig. 4 Several larger cracks through the pipe wall. Examination of metallographically prepared cross sections of the spool piece revealed microstructures of normalized low-carbon steel—namely, pearlite and ferrite. The cracks were intergranular and contained multiple...