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metallographic grinding papers

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... condition, homogeneity, etc.) be obtained either before initial use of a component, or before the use of a component can be safely resumed. In this paper, the use of standard metallurgical laboratory equipment, and the procedures required to conduct nondestructive on-site metallographic analyses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination can be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was given a macro etch test to determine whether excessive heat effects from grinding might have contributed to the failure. No evidence of such deleterious effects was detected. Also, subsequent metallographic examination of the steel at high magnification showed no evidence of localized heating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... radiograph of this weld. The weld was mounted for metallographic purposes so that the pipe circumference was in the plane of study. Figure 6 shows a cross-sectional view of the weld during the early stages of grinding. Two of the voids are exposed and some ID roughness is also apparent. Fig. 5 View...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... been no new initiation of pitting observed since 1993. This paper describes the corrosion of spent fuel and the metallographic examination of Mark 31A target slugs removed from the K-basin storage pool after 5 years of storage. It discusses the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program and the improvements...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in cold-working and hot-working applications. It reviews problems introduced during mechanical design, materials selection, machining, heat treating, finish grinding, and tool and die operation. The brittle fracture of rehardened high-speed steels is also considered. Finally, failures due to seams or laps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... 10 Grinding cracks caused by failure to temper a part. (a) Two dies made from AISI D2 tool steel that cracked after finish grinding (cracks accentuated with magnetic particles). (b) Macroetching (10% aqueous nitric acid) of the end faces revealed grinding scorch. These dies were not tempered after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the aluminum entered the tin was available, no recommendations could be made. Aluminum Impurities Tubes 99.90 Sn Intergranular fracture Brittle fracture 1. Description of Damage 2. Metallographic Preparation 3. Metallographic and Chemical Investigations 4. Conclusions Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract A paper drier head manufactured from gray cast iron was removed from service as a result of NDE detection of crack-like surface discontinuities. This component was subjected to internal steam pressure to provide heat energy for drying. Investigation (visual inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the subject of a failure investigation to determine the cause and location of the leaks. Corrosion products primarily contained copper oxide, as would be expected from a copper tubing. The product also exhibited the presence of a significant amount of iron oxides. Metallographic cross sectioning of the tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be given, however: because the indentations are small, they are affected greatly by the surface condition, such as the presence of local cold working and by surface roughness. Thus, local preparation using grinding papers and, in some cases, local polishing may be necessary to achieve results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microanalysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the fracture surface topographic features were conducted with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using a secondary electron detector. Microstructural and morphological characterization was conducted, after hot mounting, in as-polished and etched sections. Wet grinding, with successive abrasive SiC papers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... were sectioned, polished and etched for optical microscopy. Standard metallographic techniques were used in grinding and coarse polishing the failed pins. Final polishing was performed on a semi-automatic unit employing Kroll's etch and a rare earth polishing compound. Application of a duplex etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... times the nominal stress can form at notches. In this sense, abrupt changes in cross-section, sharp edges, screw threads, grooves or borings, working faults such as turning or grinding grooves, surface damage such as rubbing or pressure points and stress cracks from grinding or welding 7 can act...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a typical region of the shaft fracture showing intergranular branching cracks consistent with stress-corrosion cracking. Lepito’s reagent etch. Original magnification: 100× Fig. 17 Metallographic cross section through the fracture origin in a paper mill breast roll shaft. Several parallel cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a laboratory, the requirements for on-site testing may involve the use of portable laboratories with metallographic equipment for grinding, mechanical polishing, and etching. Small specimens can be cut from a part on the site for preparation, examination, and photography immediately or upon return to a fully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.../asm.hb.v16.a0002120 4. Natchman E.S. , Metal Cutting and Grinding Operations , Machining , Vol 16 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1989 , p 126 – 127 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002128 5. Weindel H.F. , Tool. Prod. , Nov 1981 6. Finn M.E. , Machining of Carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... 3 ). The splints were sectioned for detailed fracture and metallographic analyses. Metallographic sections were prepared to examine the microstructural characteristics and differences between regions adjacent to and distant from the fracture. The samples were prepared by grinding with successive wet...