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metallographic equipment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... condition, homogeneity, etc.) be obtained either before initial use of a component, or before the use of a component can be safely resumed. In this paper, the use of standard metallurgical laboratory equipment, and the procedures required to conduct nondestructive on-site metallographic analyses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001688
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Some examples of equipment failures involving high temperature operation are presented. They include some steam generator superheater components and a pump shaft that should not have been at high temperature. Metallographic analysis is used to determine the causes of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Several fractures occurred in flange studs used for remote handling of radioactive equipment. The studs, of quenched-and-tempered type 414 stainless steel, fractured in the HAZs produced in the studs during the circumferential welding that joined the studs to the flanges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the gears had low impact strength. Failure was attributed to low toughness caused by the absence of, or improper, heat treatment. Casting defects identified during metallographic examination were determined to be the fracture initiation site, but were considered less significant than the low as-received...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the high temperature tests were conducted, analyzing the transverse sections of the samples in an axis parallel to the rolling direction. For most of the samples, normal grinding, polishing, and etching procedures with Nital-2 solution were used. A Nikon Epiphot metallographic equipment connected...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the unaided human eye, and progress upward, first using the stereomicroscope for fractures and the LM for fracture path and microstructural studies, before using electron metallographic equipment. Microfractography is a relatively new field; its roots can be traced to the light optical fractographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... little or no effect. The cases examined show that knowledge is incomplete in regard to graphitization, and the prediction of its occurrence is not yet possible. pressure vessels piping creep deformation cracking high temperatures low alloy steel cracking perforations metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., as is the common practical situation for such equipment. Fig. 4 Cutting plan of the piece analyzed. Part 40B is the piece cut out from between the two parts shown in Figure 4a . Part 40B 1 was then examined metallographically as shown in Figures 5 , 6 and 7 . Fig. 5 The metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... pipes were not solution annealed after forming. The new vendor had incorrectly ascertained that their new-generation forming equipment would not cold work the pipe outer bends enough to form martensitic areas. The austenite-ferrite microstructurally induced galvanic corrosion because of the unique joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to the stems and seats. Visual examination revealed severe localized metal loss in the form of deep grooves with smooth and wavy surfaces. Metallographic analysis of the grooved areas revealed uniform metal loss. No evidence of intergranular or selective attack indicating erosion-corrosion was observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the aluminum equipment that was in operation prior to the installation of the mercury-removal bed. Butt welds Chemical processing equipment Ethylene Hydrocarbons Mercury Repair welding 5083-O UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background Visual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a laboratory, the requirements for on-site testing may involve the use of portable laboratories with metallographic equipment for grinding, mechanical polishing, and etching. Small specimens can be cut from a part on the site for preparation, examination, and photography immediately or upon return to a fully...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... the separator and initial examination showed that the peripheral tubes had been badly dented ( Figure 2 ). Fig. 2 Deformation of ligaments attached to peripheral tubes. The initial reaction of plant personnel was that the equipment had been badly handled during installation, and leaking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for failure analysis photography Fig. 5 Typical carrying case for field and laboratory photographic equipment Fig. 6 Copystand for dual-side incandescent lighting Fig. 7 Fracture-surface side lighting. (a) Photograph of a fatigue fracture resulting from dual-side incandescent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... was revealed by metallographic examination. The fracture features were found to be characteristic of an overload failure in a ductile material. The ruptured tubes were concluded as a result of examination to have failed as a result of excessive internal pressure. The source of the excessive internal pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pressure vessels refineries PRESSURE VESSELS, PIPING, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants are discussed in this article. These types of equipment operate over a wide range of pressures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A femoral knee implant was returned to the casting vendor for analysis after exhibiting poor bond strength between the cast substrate and a sintered porous coating. Both the coating and the substrate were manufactured from a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. Metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... examined metallographically on transverse sections and on longitudinal sections through the butt welds joining the separate cast segments of the tube. Creep damage was mainly concentrated within the inner one third of the wall thickness. The use of damage assessment parameters in evaluating the reformer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms and common causes of failure of metal components in lifting equipment in the following three categories: cranes and bridges, particularly those for outdoor and other low-temperature service; attachments used for direct lifting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surfaces revealed isolated areas of pitting corrosion, as shown in Fig. 2 . Metallographic sections were taken through the fracture surfaces which also revealed intergranular cracking and crack branching, as shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 1 Intergranular fracture morphology on field-return unit...