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metallographic analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A femoral knee implant was returned to the casting vendor for analysis after exhibiting poor bond strength between the cast substrate and a sintered porous coating. Both the coating and the substrate were manufactured from a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. Metallographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0090929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Size M5 x 0.8 mm, class 8.8 metric screws were failing during application, reportedly at the normal installation torque. Investigation (visual inspection, metallographic analysis, and unetched 8.9x fractographs) supported the conclusion that the fasteners failed via ductile overload...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and seats. Visual examination revealed severe localized metal loss in the form of deep grooves with smooth and wavy surfaces. Metallographic analysis of the grooved areas revealed uniform metal loss. No evidence of intergranular or selective attack indicating erosion-corrosion was observed, Recommendations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Diagnosis of environmentally induced failures is greatly facilitated by metallographic analysis. As an example, a failure analysis of ASTM A574 material grade bolts is presented. The bolts served as bonnet screws in underground valves and failed due to stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... heat. Visual examination showed that the casting had cracked through a thin area in the casting sidewall. Evidence of a sharply machined corner at the fracture site was also discovered. Tensile testing and metallographic analysis revealed no metallurgical cause for the failure. It was recommended...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, metallographic analysis, and simulated-service tests. It provides case studies for the analysis of SCC service failures and their occurrence in steels, stainless steels, and commercial alloys of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and titanium. aluminum alloys austenitic stainless steel carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of 1 Cr, 0.5 Mo steel with a wall thickness of 14 mm. The design temperature of this tube was 490 deg C, but there is evidence that it was operating at a temperature much above 500 deg C. Metallographic analysis disclosed an advanced stage of creep damage accumulation in the form of local cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... (visual inspection, tensile testing, 2% nital etched 59x cross sections, and metallographic analysis) supported the conclusion that failure was due to applied stresses sufficient to fracture the castings which exhibited brittle overload cracks at highly stressed locations. No recommendations were made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., immediately prior to heat treatment. Multiple-pass arc welds secured the carbon-steel flanges to the Ni-Cr-Mo-V alloy steel tubes. Investigation (visual inspection, metallographic analysis, and evaluation of the fabrication history and the analysis data) supported the conclusion that the tube failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in.) deep with a 2.5-cm (1-in.) wall thickness, was a type 309 stainless steel weldment. Operating temperatures of the lead bath in the pan ranged from 805 deg C (1480 deg F) at the entry end to 845 deg C (1550 deg F) at the exit end. Analysis (visual inspection. metallographic analysis, moisture testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... were located in wide bands running circumferentially below the cross-to-cap weld and above the cap-to-discharge-pipe weld. The material was found to conform to the requirements both in terms of hardness and strength. Intergranular cracks filled with oxide were observed on metallographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... inspection, 50x/90x/400x SEM micrographs, and metallographic analysis) supports the conclusion that the cracking problem in these components was identified as quench cracks due to their brittle, intergranular nature and the characteristic temper oxide on the fracture surfaces. Although the steel met...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... observed, indicating contamination by rusted carbon steel particles. Liquid penetrant testing was used to determine the extent of the cracks, and in situ metallographic analysis was performed over the cracked region. The morphology of the cracks was indicative of transgranular stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The investigation consisted of visual, SEM/EDS, and metallographic analysis. Several degradation mechanisms appeared to be at work, including pitting corrosion, chloride stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue fracture. Investigators concluded that the primary failure mechanism was fatigue fracture, although either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and 200 mm (10 and 8 in.) diam flanges welded to a tapered pipe section. The tapered pipe section was 3.3 mm (0.13 in.) thick type 316 stainless steel sheet, and the flanges were 5 mm (0.2 in.) thick CF8M (type 316) stainless steel castings. Visual and metallographic analysis indicated that the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... metallographic analysis showed small fatigue-type cracks in the hole adjacent to the origin of primary fracture. Hardness and electrical conductivity were typical for aluminum alloy 7075. This evidence supported the conclusion that the arm failed in fatigue cracking that initiated on each side of the lubrication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001688
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Some examples of equipment failures involving high temperature operation are presented. They include some steam generator superheater components and a pump shaft that should not have been at high temperature. Metallographic analysis is used to determine the causes of failure in each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract In 1979, during a routine bridge inspection, a fatigue crack was discovered in the top flange plate of one tie girder in a tied arch bridge crossing the Mississippi River. Metallographic analysis indicated a banding or segregation problem in the middle of the plate, where the carbon...