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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... and an external fillet weld. Cracking was found to be apparent on the tank surface, adjacent to the coupling weld. Chlorine, carbon, and oxygen in addition to the base metal elements were revealed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometric analysis. A great number of secondary, branching cracks were evident...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by electrical heating of the bridgewire. Evidence of severe corrosion was revealed on examination of the nickel-chromium-iron alloy bridgewire and the nickel-iron alloy pins. Metallic elements in the pin or bridgewire and substantial amounts of chlorine were detected from the x-ray spectra. Morphological...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of continuous, thorough questioning by the investigating activity. The combined analyses demonstrated that the bearing failed by a single event overload as evidenced by bulk deformation and traces of foreign material on the rolling elements. The anomalous transferred metal found on the rolling elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of Cu alloy (AMS4845) bushings force fit into AA2024-T3 Al alloy spacing elements. It was found that uncontrolled fit interference between the two components had led to Cu alloy overstress. Thermal cycling under operating conditions yielded the material. The dilation was directed inward to the shaft...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article addresses the forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. It describes the mechanisms of corrosive attack for specific forms of corrosion such as galvanic corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of the metal and liberation of cytotoxic metallic ions into the body. 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Previous investigation has shown that Co, Cr, Mo, and Ni are cytotoxic elements and may produce allergic skin disease. 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Some signs of allergic response are swelling and redness in the place...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of corrosive species on the tubes in Stage 3. The complete failure of the tube occurred due to diffusion of these elements into the base metal and precipitation of potassium and chlorine compounds along the grain boundaries, with subsequent dislodging of grains. The nonmetallic inclusions acted as nucleating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on elements thought to have influenced the failure process: a) the stress increase from the loss of a load bearing cross-sectional area of the bucket tip shroud by the conversion of metal to the corrosion product (scale), b) influence of the tip shroud microstructure (e.g., a presence of equiaxed and columnar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... metal elements were that of an AISI 4300 alloy steel ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Standardless semi-quantitative SEM/EDS element analysis data and graph of typical corrosion residue present in some of the cracks in the eye of the second-stage impeller. The high sodium content was believed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... extensive cracking along interdendritic pathways ( Fig. 5 , 10 , and 11 ). Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and element mapping were used to determine the contribution of metal and enviromnental chemistries to this cracking process. The presence of niobium carbide ( Fig. 5 , 6 , and 9 ), as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The results for the secondary fracture surface deposits are shown in Fig. 6 . The analysis revealed sodium, aluminum, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and chlorine in addition to base metal elements. Fig. 6 Typical EDS spectrum for the deposits on the expansion joint fracture surfaces. LT = 100s. ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the articles “ Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” “ Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” and “ Ion Chromatography ” in Materials Characterization , Volume 10 of the ASM Handbook , 2019, and in the article “ Bulk Elemental Analysis ” in the Metals Handbook Desk Edition , 2nd ed., 1998...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the unetched transverse metallographic cross section of the used new stock pipe), showing the base metal elemental composition. Fig. 9 Qualitative EDS analysis of the typical pipe corrosion products (found in the unetched transverse metallographic cross section of the used new stock pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis In failure analysis, qualitative analysis (e.g., identification of the chemical elements present in the sample area of interest) is usually sufficient to meet the analysis objectives. For example, qualitative analysis can identify contaminants on a metal surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coupled plasma spectrometer. Again, a solution of dissolved metal is fed into the instrument. The solution is dispersed and heated to plasma temperatures. The metal atoms, excited by the heat, emit light waves that have known correspondences to particular elements. A drawback of all wet methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... zone (HAZ) and weld hardnesses along with a wide variety of heat input and cooling rate variables. The normal dilution effects from the use of differing base metals or differing filler metal cause graduated hardenability coupled with cooling rate variations. Very often, elemental concentrations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., silicon, and copper. These additional elements are suggestive of the presence of erosion and/or corrosion debris from metallic components within the cooling system. The deposit that was scraped from the cylinder was found to contain primarily carbon and nickel, along with detectable iron, silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., in select cases where appropriate standards are available (e.g., metals on silicon), accurate quantification can be performed ( Ref 5 ). When elemental depth profiles are required, most TOF-SIMS systems can also be operated as a “dynamic” SIMS instrument. In the dynamic mode, very high primary ion doses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Eiseman B.J. Jr. , “Reactions of Chorofluorohydro-carbons with Metal S,” ASHRAE Journal , Vol. 5 , No. 5 , 1963 , p. 63 – 70 . 2. Borchardt H.J. , “New Findings Shed Light on Reactions of Fluorocarbons Refrigerants,” DuPont Innovation , Vol. 6 , No. 2 , 1975 , pp 2 – 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... By using a finely focused liquid metal ion gun (LMIG), typically bismuth, gold, or gallium, it is also possible to record the lateral distribution of chemical species across a surface with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Because secondary ion intensities vary dramatically from element to element...