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metal-transfer control

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... S. , Wear of Steels , Fundamentals of Friction and Wear of Materials , Rigney D.A. , Ed., American Society for Metals , 1980 , p 373 – 380 21. Chen L.H. and Rigney D.A. , Transfer during Unlubricated Sliding Wear of Selected Metal Systems , Wear , Vol 105 , 1985...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... impingement), increases in inside-diameter scale thickness, or decreases in steam-side heat-transfer coefficient caused by reduced flow, will lead to tube metal temperature increases. Table 1 lists the range of values for heat-transfer coefficients and thermal-conductivity values for internal deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in contact with the tube wall. Calculations [ 3 ] have shown that flow can enter the drop flow regime at low flow rates causing “dryout” of the tube wall. Because of the heat transfer properties of the vapor in contact with the tube wall, tube metal temperatures increase dramatically compared to the annular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... operation the transfer line operates at 845 °C, but during decoking this temperature can increase to 870 °C. An examination of the failed section of transfer line revealed severe, highly localized metal loss on the inside surface. The edges of the damaged areas were almost perpendicular and, in some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in which failure took place was 50.8 mm in diam with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. It connected to the AISI 321 superheater tube by means of a butt weld and was one of 46 such parallel connecting tubes. The Cr-Mo tubing was situated outside the heat transfer zone of the superheater. The overall...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the metal surface and corrosion rates. Corrosion products and the mass transfer of oxygen play an important role in the total material losses encountered in straight sections of a carbon steel pipeline. The material loss rate is under oxygen mass transfer control, with corrosion being the dominant mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on their housing. As shown in Fig. 4 , the inner race housing was also discolored from an apparent exposure to high temperature and was gouged and worn on the shoulder some distance from the bearing seat. Metal welded to the outer race containment nut is shown in Fig. 5 . Fig. 4 Pitch control thrust...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... coherent and shows inferior adhesion under the conditions of flow which obtain in a boiler tube and is not usually found to be present at inspections, being transferred by the water flow to other parts of the system. The total amount of magnetite produced occupies approximately twice the volume of metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or fabric; 3, short fibers. Source: Ref 2 Apart from these factors, the most important wear-controlling factor in the case of a polymer composite is the efficiency of interaction of the polymer and filler with the counterface. If the interaction reinforces the thin-film transfer efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., indicating that the molecules are oriented parallel to the sliding direction. Reprinted with permission from Ref 3 . (b) PTFE transfer film when a PTFE pin is slid over a metallic surface. PTFE covers the counterface, making fibers and layers over one another. The orientation of the fibers in the transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the wear damage of a component can be better controlled with a surface-engineering approach, in which the base metal is chosen with respect to specific properties, such as easy workability or even low cost, and the wear resistance is delegated to a proper surface treatment. The choice of optimal surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., imaging Limitations Semiconductive Very few Quantification difficult Major applications Semiconductors, electronics All industries Polymers, contamination, trace metal analysis Evaluation techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces Table 1 Evaluation techniques for chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Electron acceptors used by microorganisms Table 1 Electron acceptors used by microorganisms Electron acceptor Reduction products Relevant microbiological groups O 2 H 2 O Aerobic Fe 3+ , iron (III) oxide Fe 2+ Iron reducing or, more generally, metal reducing NO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Cristobalite, silica SiO 2 1723 3133 Carborundum, silicon carbide SiC 2700 (a) 4892 (a) Silicon nitride Si 3 N 4 1800 (b) 3270 (b) Boron nitride BN 3000 (a) 5430 (a) (a) Sublimes. (b) Dissociates Fig. 1 Metal dusting attack on the inner wall of a stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... because of its resistance to chloride and sulfuric acid dewpoint corrosion under conditions potentially present in the HRSG low-pressure feedwater economizer. Intergranular corrosion and cracking were found in the weld metal and heat-affected zones. The hardness in these regions was up to 35 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and appears in the shape of a deep and long scratch, scuff mark or a deposit. Such a phenomenon is described as a head crash. One can also observe a transfer of coating to the head. In hard drives the head is fixed on a very thin metallic flexure and flies over the surface of a high speed (3600 rpm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Butterworth Heinemann , Boston , 2001 15. Montgomery R.S. , The Mechanism of Percussive Wear of Tungsten Carbide Composites , Wear , Vol 12 , 1968 , p 309 – 329 10.1016/0043-1648(68)90535-8 16. Rabinowicz E. , Metal Transfer during Static Loading and Impacting , Proc. Phys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nonuniform and nonsymmetrical heat transfer during heating and cooling. Component design characteristics that are common to distortion and cracking problems include ( Ref 22 , 23 ): Parts that are long, with thin cross sections. Long and thin parts are defined as those greater than L = 5 d...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Tubes A Stainless Steel Bellows The Need for Corrosion Control Selected References Selected References • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of failure, local stress concentration as a result of geometry restrictions, and weld defects. This particular section was responsible for the load transfer between the front tie member and the boom extremity, and its failure was the main cause of the catastrophic failure of the equipment. welded...