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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel) UNS T20813 Introduction and Background Information Work rolls used for guiding, rolling, and straightening of metal products (flats, bars, profiles, etc.) are widely used in the metal-forming industry. Metal-working rolls are primarily manufactured from forged or cast steel or cast iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract The primary purpose of this article is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in the bulk working...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... , 12 References References 1. Singhal R.P. and Das S.R. : J. Mech. Work. Technol. , 1987 , vol. 14 , pp. 149 – 157 . 2. Langstone P.F. : Metalurgia , 1961 , pp. 107 – 115 . 3. Kalpakjian S. and Rajagopal S. : J. Appl. Metal Work. , 1982 , vol...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... application, sheet metals become stronger from a phenomenon known as work hardening or strain hardening. Concurrent with this increasing load, the actual cross-sectional area of the tensile dog bone decreases. The strength increase from work hardening is greater than the loss of the load-carrying...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... with oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term exposure to the service temperature; the effects of sensitization were intensified as a result of cold forming. Recommendations included using a work metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... foreign metal slivers were found that had caused difficulties with the cable sheathing press. An investigation was conducted to find out whether the slivers were present in the melt or whether they penetrated the metal from the outside during working. For the metallographic examination the slivers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0046242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... teeth (found at visual inspection) was composed of the same material as the metal in the coupling. Beach marks and evidence of cold work, typical of fatigue failure, were found on the fracture surface. Chips remaining in the analysis cut were difficult to remove, indicating a strong magnetic field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... In October 1987, The Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed formation of a joint international program, the Vessel Investigation Project (VIP), to study the vessel. VIP members were: Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the USA. This work...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... be appreciably altered. Furthermore, additional nonmetallic inclusions such as oxides may be developed during intermediate hot-working stages and also end up in the finished forgings. Two categories of nonmetallic inclusions are generally distinguished in metals: (a) those that are entrapped inadvertently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that superficial working of the metal, probably insufficient hot working, produced a microstructure in which the carbide particles were not broken up and evenly distributed. As a result, the grains were totally surrounded with brittle carbide particles. This facilitated the formation of a crack at a fillet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Micrographs of sections through the damaged surfaces showed a layer of distorted metal grains ( Fig. 1b ). At higher magnification, slip lines were visible, indicating that severe cold work had occurred at the surface. There was no evidence of intergranular attack or dezincification. The clean, pockmarked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... ). There were no indications of a cold-worked structure in this area; hardness of the metal was 33 to 34 HRC. The microstructure and the lack of cold-worked metal indicated that a temperature above the transformation temperature of 727 °C (1340 °F) had been reached. Examination of the microstructure opposite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... hardness tests were made on the internal surfaces of these holes, using a 10-kg. load with a Vickers diamond pyramid hardness tester. These showed variations from 351 to 657, while the parent metal away from the holes ranged from 280 to 340. Thus, there was considerable work hardening on the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and crack deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless steel's...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
base metals. Transition joints can be used when a galvanic couple is anticipated at the design stage, and weld beads should be properly oriented to minimize galvanic effects. (c) Local damage can result from cuts across heavily worked areas. End grains should not be left exposed. (d) Galvanic corrosion More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
base metals. Transition joints can be used when a galvanic couple is anticipated at the design stage, and weld beads should be properly oriented to minimize galvanic effects. (c) Local damage can result from cuts across heavily worked areas. End grains should not be left exposed. RD, rolling direction More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was examined microscopically. This revealed that the crack was associated with intergranular penetration by molten metal. The microstructure in general was indicative of a good-quality mild steel. It was evident from that solder that was responsible for the penetration and that fused brass from the hand wheel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Geller in the early 1970's. Some documented work on the effect of metal and fracture was subsequently published in the Geller Papers [ 1 ]. The scientific evidence put forth in the form of light optical and electron micrographs were totally inconclusive, with wrong interpretations and poor quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes. It is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold working and hot working applications. The processes involved in the analysis of tool...