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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes and describes sources of failures in metal AM parts. It focuses on metal AM product failures and potential solutions related to design considerations, metallurgical characteristics, production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to that of a eutectic G 120 Nonmetallic inclusions; slag, dross, flux G 121 (a) Nonmetallic inclusions whose appearance or analysis shows they arise from melting slags, products of metal treatment or fluxes Slag, dross or flux inclusions, ceroxides G 122 (a) Nonmetallic inclusions generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are covered. discontinuities hot forming ingot casting metalworking defects nonferrous forging steel forging wrought metal products Introduction to Failures Related to Hot Forming Processes Imperfections from the Ingot Imperfections in Wrought Forms Steel Forging Defects Defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on elements thought to have influenced the failure process: a) the stress increase from the loss of a load bearing cross-sectional area of the bucket tip shroud by the conversion of metal to the corrosion product (scale), b) influence of the tip shroud microstructure (e.g., a presence of equiaxed and columnar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of production. Castings examined were of an automobile name-plate holder with two flat sides of approximately 113 sq cm. All castings produced during a trial showed laking defects, the number and position varying from casting to casting. It was found that formation of metal waves and lakes depended primarily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracks showed intergranular cracks originating at weld toes and filled with oxidation product, which precluded determination of the cracking mechanism. All weldments exhibited high degrees of secondary precipitates, with original fabrication welds exhibiting higher apparent levels than repair welds. SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract During a work over of an oil well, the 9% Ni steel production tubing parted three times as it was being pulled from the well. The tubing had performed satisfactorily for more than 30 years in the well A representative failure, a circumferential fracture in a connection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract Sucker-rod pumps are operating in very aggressive environments in oil well production. The combined effect of a corrosive environment and significant mechanical loads contribute to frequent cases of failure of the rod string during operation. Standards and recommendations have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... showed that the discoloration on the cylinder was associated with metal oxidation products coated with a thin oil film. One of the recommendations was to plate the OD of the cylinder with hard chromium to increase its resistance to erosion. Another recommendation was to reduce the amounts of water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and inner surfaces of the pipe. Visual observations on the inner diametral surfaces revealed that the pipes were, in almost all cases, filled with corrosion products. A significant amount of base metal loss was documented in all of the samples. The cause of the observed corrosion was determined to be a lack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosion products covering early-fracture region and freshly exposed fracture surface of weld metal. The sample containing the circumferential weld was examined using radiography and was found to be acceptable. Radiography of the samples containing the longitudinal seam weld detected only one sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... The corrosion products were more on the inside diameter (ID) than on the outside diameter (OD) of the tube, as anticipated, due to deposition and direct contact of the ID metal surface with flue gases. The scale on the ID of the tube was loose and nonadherent, indicating deep penetration of the corrosion front...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the metal was 33 to 34 HRC. The microstructure and the lack of cold-worked metal indicated that a temperature above the transformation temperature of 727 °C (1340 °F) had been reached. Examination of the microstructure opposite the rupture revealed a lesser amount of lower transformation products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., and corrosion products in these regions were particularly rich in S, and also contained Al, Si, O, and Cl. The grain boundaries contained Cr-rich particles which were probably Cr23-C6 type carbides. In the matrix, corrosion occurred between the Widmanstatten plates. Particles were found between these plates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The phenomenon of on-load corrosion is directly associated with the production of magnetite on the water-side surface of boiler tubes. On-load corrosion may first be manifested by the sudden, violent rupture of a boiler tube, such failures being found to occur predominantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract Plate perforation occurred in the cylindrical section and walls of the inlet foot (2.38 mm thick Incoloy 825 plate welded using INCO welding rod 135) of an inert gas fire prevention system in an oil tanker. Cross-sectional microprobe analysis showed the corrosion product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of storage, visible corrosion product was evident on the depleted uranium metal Mk-31A target slugs, Mark 16B and the Mark 22 uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes stored in the basins. A program was initiated by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to determine a fundamental understanding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and nickel. The iron, chromium, and nickel are likely in the form of dissolution products from the pickling solution. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of polypropylene and poly(ethylene:propylene). The EDS results showed that the discoloration of the tube was associated with oxidation products of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., copper and sulfur were the only elements detected. In the base metal tube spectrum copper, nickel and iron were detected. The chemistry was in agreement with alloy C70600 (UNS), also known as 90-10 cupronickel [ 1 ]. Cupronickels are known for their resistance to seawater corrosion. They are used...