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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Representative copper parts. Tinting is evident. Representative nondiscolored and discolored parts were evaluated to characterize any discernible differences and to determine the nature and cause of the discoloration. Several processing substances, including cutting fluid, two different coolants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and cutting fluids may increase cutting tool life and improve surface roughness. Machined Part (In-Service) Failures In-Service Failures Caused by Undesired Surface Layers Fractures of in-service metal parts such as shafts originate at points of stress concentration either inherent in design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... out by Finnie ( Ref 82 ). Particulate erosion of a ductile steel impeller by a catalytic fluid that was not expected to be erosive is shown in Fig. 7 . Fig. 7 Particulate erosion of a ductile steel impeller by an abrasive catalyst. (a) 0.25×. (b) 1× Erosion-resistant metals include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions) material surface occurs, including removal of chemicals (e.g., lubricants and cutting fluids remaining after production), a change of topography (removal of grinding marks, etc.), removal of fragments weakened or damaged during the production stage, generation of defects (cracks, etc.), embedment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... loosened some of this material, though most of it was very tenacious. It may be a corrosion product from reaction with body fluids, or a dried body fluid deposit. Fig. 5 Scanning electron micrographs from both ends of screw hole showing radial markings pointing to the origin of fracture (at arrows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., however, because the bushing had only a few microns of clearance. The effect caused the oil to squeeze out, resulting in metal-to-metal contact, and ultimately failure. Aircraft components Gear boxes Oil pumps Overheating Thermal stresses 32CrMoV 13 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... may develop if boiling of the liquid pool occurs such that droplets of fluid spatter onto the dry wall. There, the droplets are vaporized and the resulting heat transfer quenches the heated metal at localized regions, again setting up thermally generated biaxial tensile stress gradients, but on a more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... be defined as the spontaneous failure of a metal resulting from the combined effects of a corrosive environment and the effective component of tensile stress acting on the structure. However, because of the orientation dependence in aluminum, it is the residual stress occurring in the most susceptible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... it is desirable to examine the nuts and other associated parts that may have contributed to the failures. Also, in failures involving corrosion, stress-corrosion, or corrosion fatigue, a sample of the fluid that has been in contact with the metal, or of any deposits that have formed, will often be required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of corrosion in heat exchangers may be achieved through the following actions: Use of corrosion-resistant and/or clad metal (bimetal) materials if possible Use of fluids with corrosion inhibitors Good design practices, such as avoiding crevices and stagnant fluid zones, selecting adequate materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a deposit removed from a fracture surface that experienced stress corrosion may not reveal the corrodent that caused the SCC. Often the fracture surface is flushed with water or cleaned prior to testing. Liquid penetrants, cleaning fluids, cutting fluids, and solvents may alter the chemical composition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propellers, valves, heat-exchanger tubes, and other hydraulic structures in contact with high-velocity liquids subjected to pressure changes. This type of wear also has been observed in mechanical devices such as plain bearings, seals, and orifices in which fluid goes through severe restrictions. Cavitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and damage to other components in the system resulting from loss of working fluid. The downtime resulting from boiler failure and subsequent repair may require other operations to be curtailed or shut down, with an attendant economic loss. Mode of Heat Transfer and the Resultant Tube Metal Temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Thermal fatigue fracture Crevice corrosion In recent years, there has been a growing application of reactive metals in the processing equipment in chemical, petroleum, and power industries. Commercially pure titanium with desirable engineering properties as well as excellent corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the reaction is usually oxidation. Fretting wear occurs in tribosystems such as metal versus plastic, where oxidation of nascent surfaces does not usually occur. Abrasive wear by hard particles occurs when one body, in general, a ceramic-like substance, is much harder than the counterface, such as a ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of wear and then refine these in terms of specific operational features. The term abrasive wear is used to describe situations where the principal cause of the wear is scratching or cutting by abrasive particles. The term nonabrasive wear is used to describe all other wear situations involving contact...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. Examination and evaluation of plastics and ceramics are also briefly discussed. It should also be noted that the term “subject component” is used in text, because the determination of failure (or loss of function) may still be the objective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) may not reveal the corrodent that caused the SCC. Often, the fracture surface is flushed with water, cleaned, or decontaminated for safety reasons prior to testing. Liquid penetrants, cleaning fluids, cutting fluids, and solvents can alter the chemical composition of surface deposits. Results from...