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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Close-up view of mating fracture surface to that shown in Fig. 6 . A slaglike deposit was present in the region marked “D.” Rubbing damage is evident at the edge of the fracture in the region marked “R.” Fracture through the weld metal can be seen, for example, in the region marked “W.” More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... physical and chemical properties. In the simplest, and most common case, it consists of the base-metal parts to be joined and the added filler metal. However, partial dissolution of the base metal, combined with diffusion processes, can change the composition and therefore the chemical and physical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... carried out. To the uninitiated on the other hand, welding appears on obviously simple process and the apparent ease with which metal can be deposited has led to many instances of misuse. It has been applied to materials which are only weldable by special procedures, to the indiscriminate building-up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... contiguous and can “hold water,” in contrast with a fractured area where the sheet metal has separated locally. Shop-floor terms for necking include smiles and elongations. Mechanical properties such as strength and elongation are determined on well-defined sample shapes known as “dog bones,” owing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Discussion Many polycrystalline metals can become brittle and fail along grain boundaries when a low stress is applied. The brittleness has been attributed to intergranular weakness caused by the precipitation or segregation of impurities to grain boundaries. For example, Auger electron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article commences with a summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms. It focuses on fractography of fatigue. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low magnification are described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characteristics can act singly or combine synergistically to reduce the strength, ductility, and toughness of metallic materials. These factors must also be considered in the evaluation and prevention of overload failures. Therefore, throughout this article, the term overload failure implies fracture due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of failure. This article begins with an abbreviated summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low magnification are then described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals are presented subsequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-melting metals and alloys. Tin, lead, and zinc melt below the maximum service temperature of the turbine, which was 462 °C (864 °F). One Sn-Zn system had a eutectic melting point of less than 204 °C (400 °F). Such metals can cause liquid-metal embrittlement at temperatures above their melting points...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... number of industrial failures by LME (and very occasionally by SMIE) do occur [ 2 – 4 ]. There are remarkably diverse, potential sources of embrittling metal environments [ 4 – 7 ], summarized in Table 1 , and failures can occur if engineers who design, operate, and maintain equipment are not aware...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of an overload failure. It also presents examples of thermally and environmentally induced embrittlement effects that can alter the overload fracture behavior of metals. atomic structure brittle cracking crack propagation crystalline structure ductile cracking ductility environmentally induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the embrittler must wet (or adhere in solid form) to the structural metal surface; the passive layer can be removed locally, either chemically or by strain. There is no correlation between aggressiveness or corrosivity of the embrittling metal toward the structural metal in the absence of stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Corrosion Cavitation-corrosion is another type of erosion-corrosion attack on a metal surface, caused by microjet impingement and via bubble collapse ( Ref 6 , 7 ). When a bubble (which can have both vapor and gas content) in a liquid collapses due to the change in pressure of the surrounding medium...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Design details that can affect galvanic corrosion. (a) Fasteners should be more noble than the components being fastened; undercuts should be avoided, and insulating washers and spaces should be used to completely isolate the fastener. (b) Weld filler metals should be more noble than More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 Design details that can affect galvanic corrosion. (a) Fasteners should be more noble than the components being fastened; undercuts should be avoided, and insulating washers and spaces should be used to completely isolate the fastener. (b) Weld filler metals should be more noble than More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... source can affect metal properties and microstructures during cutting. Therefore, dry abrasive cutoff wheels should never be used near critical surfaces that will be examined microscopically. Therefore, sectioning should be performed with jewelers' saws, precision diamond-edged, thin cutoff wheels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the electrochemical reaction. When viewed from the standpoint of partial processes of oxidation and reduction, all corrosion can be classified into a few generalized reactions. The anodic reaction in every corrosion reaction is the oxidation of a metal to its ion. This can be written in the general form: (Eq 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., production method, and/or design. The article also addresses conditions related to the casting process but not specific to any metal group, including misruns, pour shorts, broken cores, and foundry expertise. The discussion in each casting metal group includes factors concerning defects that can occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (fcc) structure generally are not sensitive to strain rate. Their response to cavitation often is similar to their static mechanical behavior. Main damage is caused by plastic deformation or ductile rupture, which can be attributed to microjet impact close to the surface. For metals with a body...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of these environments. The environment present during the digestion process is not necessarily the one responsible for corrosion. Remedial Action General corrosion of the weld metal can be mitigated by the use of a metal with greater corrosion resistance. The proprietary metal specified, which would appear...