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melting furnaces

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The specified elongation of 10% could not be achieved in several hollow pinion gear shafts made of cast Cr-Mo steel GS 35 Cr-Mo 5 3 that were heat treated to a strength of 90 kp/sq mm. The steel was melted in a basic 3 ton arc furnace and deoxidized in the furnace and in the pan...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... melting clinkers from scale and furnace lining filling up the crevice of the original defect. Decarburizing Ingots Nonmetallic inclusions Rolling Fe-0.4C-0.73Mn-1.15Cr-0.28Mo (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures Case History One percent Chromium-Molybdenum steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated, furnished...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract An extensive metallurgical investigation was carried out on samples of a failed roller bearing from the support and tilting system of a basic oxygen furnace converter used in the steel melting shop of an integrated steel plant. The converter bearing was fabricated from low-carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A brazing-furnace muffle 34 cm (13 in.) wide, 26 cm (10 in.) high, and 198 cm (78 in.) long, was fabricated from nickel-base high-temperature alloy sheet and installed in a gas-fired furnace used for copper brazing of various assemblies. The operating temperature of the muffle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... with increasing melting temperature, but that it was absent in melts made in acid furnaces. Several cast tensile specimens and some forcibly broken pieces of the flanges of armature yoks made of cast steel GS C 25 according to DIN 17 245 were investigated. Figures 1 show two of the tensile specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the pot permitting the molten magnesium alloy to contact the iron oxide causing a thermite-like reaction, which by its strongly exothermic nature would locally melt the steel causing the leak. The ensuing fire in the furnace hearth would overheat the outside surface of the pot bottom in a very unstable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that have been slowly cooled from the carburizing furnace prior to hardening. Grain Boundary Liquation (Incipient Eutectic Melting) Overheating may result in partial or incipient melting of eutectic constituents in the grain boundary region of alloys. Eutectic constituents with the lowest melting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Heating elements, consisting of strips, 40 mm x 2 mm, of the widely used 80Ni-20Cr resistance heating alloy, and designed to withstand a temperature of 1175 deg C, were rendered unusable by scaling after a few months service in a through-type annealing furnace, Although the temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract The various methods of furnace, torch, induction, resistance, dip, and laser brazing are used to produce a wide range of highly reliable brazed assemblies. However, imperfections that can lead to braze failure may result if proper attention is not paid to the physical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... temperature. When the temperature of the grate bar exceeds the melting point of the salt deposit (∼520 °C, or 970 °F), hot corrosion is activated. Because there is no inherent mechanism for salt removal other than scale spalling or surface abrasion, the deposit accumulates with each cycle through the furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... specific to the metal group and progress from melting to solidification, casting processing, and finally how the removal of the mold material can affect performance. aluminum casting defects castings copper ductile iron failure analysis gray iron melting solidification steel Introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the location of a leak(s) that was observed during operation, 2) determine if the leak(s) resulted from the new melting process or resulted from anticipated degradation during its service life, 3) determine the failure mechanism associated with the leak site(s), and 4) evaluate the overall metallurgical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... mm (15 to 50 mils) from the surface. These could be translated to rates of 0.064 to 0.203 mm (2.5 to 8 mils) per year. These rates are consistent with those of 800HT exposed to a furnace environment ( Ref 3 ). All weldments exhibited high degrees of secondary precipitates with original...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...) Analysis by Bethlehem-Lukens Plate Division The open hearth furnace was tapped into a ladle after the steel was melted and refined. The low silicon and high oxygen content indicates that there may have been only limited deoxidation as the tapping occurred. The steel was teemed into ingot molds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrofused, A-Z-S bricks, containing alumina-zirconia-silica and made especially for glass-melting furnaces. Refractory materials with high zirconia content require the use of stabilized zirconia (CaO or MgO in solid solution) to avoid cracking on heating, due to monoclinic to tetragonal transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The top tube of a horizontal superheater bank in the reheat furnace of a steam generator ruptured after seven years in service. The rupture was found to have occurred in the ferritic steel tubing (2.25Cr-1Mo steel (ASME SA-213, grade T-22)) near the joint where it was welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... In aluminum die-casting, especially Al-Si-Cu alloys containing iron (the alloy of the parts under investigation), intermetallic compounds (Fe-Al-Mn-Si combinations) form locally or throughout the melt in the form of grains or needlelike crystals due to excessively low temperature in the crucible holding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are much higher than found in contact with NH 3 at high temperatures (980 to 1090 °C, or 1800 to 2000 °F) ( Ref 21 ). Nitriding furnaces and accessories for heat treating powder metal products are typically exposed to N 2 or N 2 -H 2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures (~1090 °C, or 2000 °F). Both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... temperature. Fig. 4 Higher magnification SEM micrograph of the same fracture surface, showing dendritic MnS precipitates on the facets. This is an indication of incipient melting at the grain boundaries. Fig. 6 Optical micrographs of the spool region of failed kingpin. (a) Away from...