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melt treatment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... boss on one side. After annealing, hot spinning, annealing a second time, and tack welding a port fitting, the assembly was torch preheated to 120 to 150 deg C (250 to 300 deg F). The port fitting was then welded in place. Final full heat treatment to the T62 temper was followed by machining, testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The specified elongation of 10% could not be achieved in several hollow pinion gear shafts made of cast Cr-Mo steel GS 35 Cr-Mo 5 3 that were heat treated to a strength of 90 kp/sq mm. The steel was melted in a basic 3 ton arc furnace and deoxidized in the furnace and in the pan...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... hardening and heat treatment does not present any serious difficulty. Care is still required in processing to avoid decarburization. In an application of track pins for tracked vehicles, bars about 22 mm diam were required in heat treated and centerless-ground condition prior to induction hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...) Eliminate the grooves; 2) Remove the ferritic bright border; 3) Avoid undercooling in the mold and therefore the formation of granular graphite; 4) Inoculate with finely powdered ferrosilicon into the melt for the same purpose; and, 5) Anneal at lower temperature or eliminate subsequent treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... points to the existence of these cracks before heat treatment and cadmium plating of the casting. The appearance of cleavage on the macroscopic scale, together with grain-boundary facet morphology on the microscopic scale, can thus be explained as follows. Steels melted and cast in the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Hydrogen embrittlement is the brittleness affecting copper and copper alloys containing oxygen which develops during heat treatment at temperatures of about 400 deg C (752 deg F) and above in an atmosphere containing hydrogen. The phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement of copper and its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
.... The fracture progressed into the threaded section and formed a pyramid-shape fragment after it was initiated at approximately 45 deg through the hole in the square end. An irregular zone of untempered martensite with cracks radiating from the surface of the hole (result of melting around hole) was revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the inside surface of a bearing hole, and small areas of pitting corrosion were visible on the exterior surface of the fitting. The analysis also revealed a small number of rosettes, suggestive of eutectic melting, in an otherwise normal structure. These examinations and analyses support the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... temperature, and electroplated with cadmium for protection against corrosion. Each fracture showed seven or eight kidney-shaped cracks. At the origins of these cracks on the concave inner surface of the springs, crater-like depressions and beads of melted and resolidified material were found. Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... austenite grain boundary, which then transforms to ferrite. This results in excessively weak boundaries. Subsequent heat treatment provides a very poor impact strength and an almost completely intergranular fracture surface after impact failure. Tool steels, whose eutectic melting temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: burning or incipient melting can also occur in extreme cases. Figure 31(a) shows an end view of a powder metallurgy die component made from AISI D2 tool steel that melted and deformed due to highly excessive localized temperatures during heat treatment. The microstructure in this region ( Fig. 31b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... component made from AISI D2 tool steel that melted and deformed due to highly excessive localized temperatures during heat treatment. The microstructure in this region ( Fig. 31b ) shows the melted region, heat-affected zone, and base microstructure. Fig. 31 AISI D2 powder metallurgy die component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was sectioned for microscopic examination. A very fine transverse fissure through the section was visible. Examination of a micrograph ( Fig. 1b ) showed streaks of ferrite, which can be formed when steel is heated approximately to the melting point. Examination of specimens from other areas of the case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide variety...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... coarser network of rod-shaped and plate-shaped precipitates was found, that probably corresponded to the primary grain boundaries, or to the grain boundaries or twin planes of the austenite formed during solidification of the melt. These particles could have been aluminum nitride judging by their shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... requires heavy mechanical working at high temperatures. Conventional heat treatment, performed near the melting point of the alloy, is insufficient to adequately refine and homogenize the high-temperature carbides. There are three contributing causes to these failures. The primary factor is the coarse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... caused by liquid metal embrittlement. (b) Irregular thickness of cadmium after sectioning Hydrogen Embrittlement Absorbed hydrogen embrittles titanium and high-strength steels. Pickup of hydrogen can take place during cleaning, plating, heat treatment, and even melting to refine the raw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., gating and risering, melting and ladle practice, pouring technique, and heat treatment, that must be controlled to produce sound castings requires both a thorough understanding of the processes used and strict engineering supervision. The price of a casting often reflects the cost of such efforts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded cylinder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... temperatures, as indicated by melting in the brass components and the extreme distortion in the rollers. Microscopic examination on the crankshaft material showed it to be a good quality steel. On the other hand, the chromium plate was thick, porous, and cracked in many places, including the point of the main...