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melt fluxing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., if the heating rate is too slow, liquation of lower-melting constituents can occur, with the higher-melting phases remaining as a rough, porous mass. Incomplete joints can also result from use of the wrong flux or from atmosphere quality that is less than adequate. Reheating a braze joint during fabrication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.../cm 2 , or 0.18 oz/in 2 ; approximately 45 mol % chlorides, with the balance sulfates. Abstract Grate bars in the traveling grate indurators in several taconite processing units suffered excessive corrosion following a conversion from acid to fluxed pellet production procedures. The campaign...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 140 ppm HCl ( Ref 29 ). Municipal wastes are characterized as having a 0.5% halide dry content, of which 60% is derived from organic polymer sources ( Ref 30 ). Chloride salts have melting temperatures as low as 175 °C (350 °F), which can serve as a fluxing agent that dissolves protective oxide films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... materials, time of contact, surface conditions (e.g., cleanliness, oxidization, etc.), and the composition and amount of flux used during the joining process. When the molten solder contacts the target surface (such as copper traces or leads/pads on the PCB), melt spreading takes place. The spread...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or by terminating welding on runoff tabs that are cut away later. If crater cracks are found, they should be chipped out and the area rewelded, because it is very difficult to melt out a crater crack. Hat cracks (No. 9, Fig. 3 ) derive their name from the shape of the weld cross section with which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... To make the appropriate calculations, first evaluate the thermal stability of each constituent. Then, consider the melting and dissolution behavior under equilibrium conditions. Finally, assess the redox potentials, taking into account the partial pressure values of the initial constituents and of all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the location of a leak(s) that was observed during operation, 2) determine if the leak(s) resulted from the new melting process or resulted from anticipated degradation during its service life, 3) determine the failure mechanism associated with the leak site(s), and 4) evaluate the overall metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or melts are deficient in the oxide ion concentration, leading to acidic fluxing that results in pitting attack. Sulfides are found in the pitted area ( Ref 25 ). Low-temperature hot corrosion may involve a gaseous reaction of SO 3 or SO 2 with CoO and NiO, which results in pitting from the formation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the curing agent for the epoxy was chlorendic anhydride. This material, thermo-setting in nature, will not melt when exposed to elevated temperatures. Instead, the epoxy exhibits a glass transition temperature, or T g . This is the point at which the amorphous phase of the polymer changes from a hard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... not involve melting. As shown in Fig. 2 , there are many different processes available for welding metals ( Ref 3 ), and the selection depends on the type of material, geometry, application, cost, and properties targeted at the joint, among others. When metals are welded together, acceptance criteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature for different values of heat flux At very high heat fluxes, DNB can occur at low steam quality, and the temperature difference between tube wall and bulk fluid at a point slightly downstream from DNB is very high. Under these conditions, tube failure can theoretically occur by melting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Each type has characteristic features. Ruptures Caused by Overheating When water is boiled in a tube having uniform heat flux (rate of heat transfer) along its length under conditions that produce a state of dynamic equilibrium, various points along the tube will be in contact with subcooled...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... appearance transition tempera- ture fcc face-centered cubic FCAW flux cored arc welding FDA Food and Drug Administration FEA finite element analysis FFS fit for service FHA fault hazard analysis Fig. figure FMEA failure modes and effects analysis FMECA failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis FRP...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and solid cadmium at various temperatures (Cadmium melts at 321 °C) [ 18 ] Fig. 9 Macroscopic view of fracture surface in the region of the circumferential weld Fig. 10 SEM of fracture surface in the weld region of inlet nozzle showing intergranular cracking through the equi-axed grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using a Thermopile Method.” Both test methods use radiant heat sources to generate heat fluxes as great as 100 kW/m 2 . The specific heat flux(es) and whether an external ignition source is used are not specified in the test procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Composition approximates that of the alloy cast but nearer to that of a eutectic G 120 Nonmetallic inclusions; slag, dross, flux G 121 (a) Nonmetallic inclusions whose appearance or analysis shows they arise from melting slags, products of metal treatment or fluxes Slag, dross or flux...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... corrosive flux accelerated the corrosion on the outer wall. Microstructure degradation and the corrosion characteristics observed indicate that the tubes failed primarily because of overheating, which is confirmed by calculations. References References 1. Gabrielli F. , Overview of water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and understand all the damage mechanisms that are present. Also, some types of damage mechanisms do not fit these four categories very well. Elevated-temperature mechanisms are often difficult to categorize. Under which category should melting and fire damage be placed? Creep is a mechanism that could result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... very well. Elevated-temperature mechanisms are often difficult to categorize. Into which category should melting and fire damage be placed? Creep is a mechanism that could result in distortion and fracture. Would either of these categories provide meaningful clues leading to evaluation...