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medium annealing

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 38 SEM view of fatigue fracture surface of annealed medium-carbon alloy steel tested in rotating bending. No distinct fatigue striations could be resolved. Crack growth direction from right to left More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Catastrophic pitting corrosion occurred in type 304L stainless steel pipe flange assemblies in an industrial food processor. During regular service the pumped medium was pureed vegetables. In situ maintenance procedures included cleaning of the assemblies with a sodium hypochlorite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the original (and specified) material was medium-carbon 1045 steel. The low-carbon steel also had lower hardness because of a lower pearlite fraction in the microstructure. It was recommended that replacement sprockets be made of normalized 1045 steel. It was further suggested that wear resistance could...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 38 Scanning electron microscope view of fatigue fracture surface of annealed medium-carbon alloy steel tested in rotating bending. No distinct fatigue striations could be resolved. Crack growth direction from right to left More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... simultaneously: A material with a susceptibility of stress corrosion cracking Internal or external tensile stresses A corrosive medium for the particular material The cracks that are initially very fine run either through the grains (transcrystalline) or follow the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract An arsenical admiralty brass (UNS C44300) finned tube in a generator air cooler unit at a hydroelectric power station failed. The unit had been in operation for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes was water from a river. Air flowed over the finned exterior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cracking. Stresses responsible for the cracking resulted from weld contraction. The pans had been hosed down periodically with water from local boreholes to remove sugar from the external surfaces, which introduced the corrosive medium. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Evaporator pans...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... adjacent to the welds. Use of highly stressed austenitic stainless steels in high-chloride environments having a temperature above 65 deg C (150 deg F) should be discouraged. Solution annealing or shot peening to reduce residual stresses may be advisable. If heat treatment is not feasible after welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine the factors responsible for the occasional formation of cracks on the parting lines of medium plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. The cracks were present on as-forged parts and grew during heat treatment. Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and crack deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless steel's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... treatment Type of babbit treatment Cast state Plasma spraying Annealing, at 200°C Annealing at 100°C + compression to 53% Chemical composition, wt.% Sb-11.9; Cu-4.5; Sn-remainder Sb-13.5; Cu-6.0; Sn-remainder Sb-11.9; Cu-4.5; Sn-remainder Brinell hardness 26.9 20.3 26.8 22.8 Density...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... tube was one of eight cooler units at a hydroelectric power station. The unit had operated for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes is water from a river. Air flows over the finned exterior of the tubes, while water circulates through the tubes. Circumstances Leading to Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with a rounded metal hammer. The ringing that resulted was usually of a high to medium pitch and fairly consistent from one vane to the next. When a broken or cracked vane was tapped, a dull pitch resulted. If a definite change in sound occurred, the vane was inspected visually or using liquid penetrant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... medium-carbon investment castings must receive a carbon-restoration treatment prior to or during the hardening treatment. Forgings : Parts before forging are normally heated to forging temperatures without the benefit of protective atmospheres. Therefore, unless a carbon-restoration process has been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... had not played any part. Tensile stress was present at the time of the failure sufficiently high to enable solder penetration to take place. The use of soft solder as a medium for attaching name-plates directly on to stressed steel parts is not recommended. It would be preferable to use a welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in.) diam medium-carbon chromium steel rolled bar was heat treated in accordance with specification requirements. These parts are used for critical applications in helicopters, and thus utmost care is necessary to ensure quality from the melting stage onward. Circumstances Leading to Failure Magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to meet because the material may be exposed to corrosive attack by various mediums. Therefore, damage to heat exchangers is often difficult to avoid. Characteristics of Tubing The primary function of tubes in a heat exchanger is to transfer heat from the shell side of the unit to the fluid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The catalytic steam reforming process uses light to medium hydrocarbons in a certain ratio to steam in order to produce different synthesis gases (i.e. methanol, hydrogen, towngas, CO-CO 2 , oxoalcohols, or reduction gas). The heart of the steam reforming process is the primary reformer furnace. The design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... inside the material tend to propagate during the draw, leading to failure. The area reduction is typically limited to 10% for each draw of a hard material, and the total reduction may require a number of annealing cycles. 1 An increase in the number of drawing/ annealing cycles increases the cost...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... < ε 111 >0 >>0 In water; full hardness penetration Transformation R before K after thermal stress maximum Big >0 ε 1 > ε 11 > ε 111 <0 >0 Medium hardness penetration Transformation R before K after thermal stress maximum Big ≥0 ε 1...