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medium annealing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Catastrophic pitting corrosion occurred in type 304L stainless steel pipe flange assemblies in an industrial food processor. During regular service the pumped medium was pureed vegetables. In situ maintenance procedures included cleaning of the assemblies with a sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the original (and specified) material was medium-carbon 1045 steel. The low-carbon steel also had lower hardness because of a lower pearlite fraction in the microstructure. It was recommended that replacement sprockets be made of normalized 1045 steel. It was further suggested that wear resistance could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... simultaneously: A material with a susceptibility of stress corrosion cracking Internal or external tensile stresses A corrosive medium for the particular material The cracks that are initially very fine run either through the grains (transcrystalline) or follow the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract An arsenical admiralty brass (UNS C44300) finned tube in a generator air cooler unit at a hydroelectric power station failed. The unit had been in operation for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes was water from a river. Air flowed over the finned exterior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-corrosion cracking. Stresses responsible for the cracking resulted from weld contraction. The pans had been hosed down periodically with water from local boreholes to remove sugar from the external surfaces, which introduced the corrosive medium. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Evaporator...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... in the base metal adjacent to the welds. Use of highly stressed austenitic stainless steels in high-chloride environments having a temperature above 65 deg C (150 deg F) should be discouraged. Solution annealing or shot peening to reduce residual stresses may be advisable. If heat treatment is not feasible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine the factors responsible for the occasional formation of cracks on the parting lines of medium plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. The cracks were present on as-forged parts and grew during heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... transformation temperature for austenite formation, Ac 3 , also depends on starting microstructure. Figure 7 shows experimentally measured Ac 3 temperatures for 4130 steel with three starting microstructures produced by annealing (ferrite and widely dispersed carbides) or by quenching and tempering at either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... diameter and crack deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in field weld applications when stress relieving or annealing is not feasible and when there is no requirement for the weld metal to have the same mechanical and corrosion properties as the base metal. Austenitic stainless steel filler metals are often used to obtain more ductile weld metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Table 1 Data on babbit's structure parameters and mechanical and tribological properties Deformation heat treatment Type of babbit treatment Cast state Plasma spraying Annealing, at 200°C Annealing at 100°C + compression to 53% Chemical composition, wt.% Sb-11.9; Cu-4.5; Sn...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ). Most Probable Cause Remedial Action The generator air cooler tube was one of eight cooler units at a hydroelectric power station. The unit had operated for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes is water from a river. Air flows over the finned exterior of the tubes, while...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effect of the medium circulating through the heat exchanger. For example, an acid-containing vapor stream may not be corrosive above its dew point, but if the stream is cooled below its dew point, severe general attack can result from acid condensation on internal surfaces of tube walls. On the outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the hand wheel had not played any part. Tensile stress was present at the time of the failure sufficiently high to enable solder penetration to take place. The use of soft solder as a medium for attaching name-plates directly on to stressed steel parts is not recommended. It would be preferable to use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... < ε 111 >0 >>0 In water; full hardness penetration Transformation R before K after thermal stress maximum Big >0 ε 1 > ε 11 > ε 111 <0 >0 Medium hardness penetration Transformation R before K after thermal stress maximum Big ≥0 ε 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... containing soft ceramic shot filler. (Note the round particles in the epoxy at the top.) The specimen is annealed H13 hot work die steel, and it was etched with picral. Fig. 16 Light micrograph showing cutting damage (arrows at left) and a burr at the corner of a specimen of commercial-purity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Johnson R.W. , A Study of the Pickup of Abrasive Particles during Abrasion of Annealed Aluminium on Silicon Carbide Abrasive Papers , Wear , Vol 16 ( No. 5 ), 1970 , p 351 – 358 10.1016/0043-1648(70)90101-8 4. Kornfeld K. , Celluloid Replicas Aid Study of Metal Fractures , Met...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... A batch of 120 end frame parts forged and machined from a 200 mm (8 in.) diam medium-carbon chromium steel rolled bar was heat treated in accordance with specification requirements. These parts are used for critical applications in helicopters, and thus utmost care is necessary to ensure quality from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... material, and the total reduction may require a number of annealing cycles. 1 An increase in the number of drawing/ annealing cycles increases the cost of production. It is obviously very expensive to use drawing operations to produce components from hard-to-work materials. However, if dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join components of heat exchangers, produces metal in the joints that is not homogeneous. The weld consists of a dendritic structure (cast metal) and intermediate zones between fused metal and unaffected base metal. In some cases, the entire heat exchanger can be normalized or annealed...