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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... That they failed in the threaded portion also suggests a stress-concentration effect. Recommendations included changing the material spec to a higher-strength material with greater impact strength. In this case, it was recommended that the stems, despite any possible design changes, be manufactured from an alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...) than specified. It was disclosed by metallographic examination that the microstructure was predominantly equiaxed ferrite and pearlite which indicated that the material was in either the hot-worked or normalized condition. An improvement of fatigue strength of the shaft by the development of a quenched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the tooth. It was concluded that the seam had been present before the shaft was heat treated and these seams acted as stress raisers during induction hardening to cause the shaft failure. It was recommended that the specifications should specify that the shaft material should be free of seams and other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... originated at a material imperfection and progressed in more than one plane because changes in the direction of wheel rotation altered the direction of the applied stresses. Recommendations included rewriting the inspection specifications to require sound forgings. Aircraft components Forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A Lynx helicopter from the Royal Netherlands Navy lost a rotor blade during preparation for take-off. The blade loss was due to failure of a rotor hub arm by fatigue. The arm was integral to the titanium alloy rotor hub. An extensive material based failure analysis covered the hub...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.9781627082242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Material samples collected from failed booster pumps were analyzed to determine the cause of failure and assess the adequacy of the materials used in the design. The pumps had been in service at a power plant, transporting feedwater from a deaerator to a main turbine boiler. Samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The failure of a boiler operating at 540 °C and 9.4 MPa was investigated by examining material samples from the near-failure region and by thermodynamic analysis. A scanning Auger microprobe, SEM, and commercial thermodynamic software codes were used in the investigation. Results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract During the preproduction stages of forging, an initial batch of 50 mm (2 in.) diam Al-4Cu alloy (L77) extruded bar stock material was found to be cracking randomly. Failure analysis was conducted to determine the metallurgical factors underlying the phenomenon. Microexamination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract There are many reasons why plastic materials should not be considered for an application. It is the responsibility of the design/materials engineer to recognize when the expected demands are outside of what the plastic can provide during the expected life-time of the product...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 Tearing shear fractures. (a) In brittle material. (b) In ductile material More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 33 Stress-rupture curves for virgin material and predamaged material showing the various life fractions. Virgin material rupture life at 575 °C (1065 °F) is 62,210 h Estimated remaining life at 575 °C (1065 °F) for predamaged samples based on: Symbol Damage fraction Life More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Crack arrest lines on edge-notched tension specimens. Material thickness 13 mm ( 1 2 in.), 10 mm ( 3 8 in.), and 6 mm ( 1 4 in.). Note the distance for first arrest, which increases with section thickness, and note that the arrest lines are not closed More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Change in behavior of a polymeric material with increasing strain rate and/or decreasing temperature. (a) Brittle behavior. (b) Limited ductility behavior. (c) Cold drawing behavior. (d) Rubbery behavior. Curve (a) could represent testing below the glass transition temperature. Source More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 A dual-dimple size observed in a 4150 steel. Material was isothermally transformed at 190 °C (375 °F) and was not tempered. Tested as a Charpy V-notch specimen at 0 °C (30 °F). Source: Ref 30 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 70 Brittle fracture in a 4150 steel. Material has been isothermally transformed at 300 °C (570 °F) from a Charpy V-notched specimen fractured at room temperature. Brittle fracture facets within larger regions, which were probably prior austenite grains. Source: Ref 30 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 75 Micrograph of surface area of material before bending and cracking (shown in Fig. 74 ). Note the deep rolled-in oxide connecting to the outside surface. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 82 Two views of material slightly above the bolt hole. (a) Low-magnification view. Chevrons point to the bolt hole (located at the top of the photograph). Location is slightly above the bolt hole. Note the absence of lateral contraction and two very thin shear lips. (b) Higher More