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mass transfers

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). It was hypothesized that intensive near-wall turbulence disrupted the protective corrosion product and disturbed the mass transfer layer, thus enhancing oxygen transport to the metal surface and corrosion rates. Corrosion Products and the Mass Transfer of Oxygen Corrosion products and the mass transfer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... : Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer , 3rd ed. , John Wiley & Sons , New York , 1990 , p. 648 . Selected References Selected References • Freeman S.R. , Analysis and Prevention of Corrosion-Related Failures , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...; J.C. J. App. Phys., 22 , 74 – 81 ( 1951 ). 16. Peterson N.L. : International Metals Reviews, 28 , 65 – 91 ( 1983 ). 17. Faulkner R.G. , Fray D.J. and Jones R.D. , “Worked Examples in Mass Transfer in Materials Engineering” , p. 35 , published...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...., Huntsville, AL. http://rhedco.com/ . Accessed June 2009 8. Manson S.S. : Behavior of materials under conditions of thermal stress . Heat Transfer Symposium , University of Michigan Engineering Research Institute , pp. 9 – 75 ( 1953 ) 9. White F.M. : Heat and Mass Transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... across heavily worked areas. End grains should not be left exposed. RD, rolling direction. (d) Galvanic corrosion is possible if a coated component is cut. When necessary, the cathodic component of a couple should be coated. (e) Ion transfer through a fluid can result in galvanic attack of less noble...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (containing heat and mass). Refractories for heat containment only are called insulating materials. Insulating materials are not covered specifically in the context of corrosion failures. The accepted definition for industrial refractories is, according to the ASTM ( Ref 1 ), “Nonmetallic materials having...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract This article covers the three most popular techniques used to characterize the very outermost layers of solid surfaces: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Some of the more...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides information on the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). It describes the basic theory behind each...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear situations, the white layer in one body can be entirely made up of material transferred from the second body. Subsurface regions form on both impacting bodies and grow very quickly, within a few hundred impacts ( Ref 8 ). Once formed, the white layer and the deformation zone maintain a steady...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Butterworth Heinemann , Boston , 2001 15. Montgomery R.S. , The Mechanism of Percussive Wear of Tungsten Carbide Composites , Wear , Vol 12 , 1968 , p 309 – 329 10.1016/0043-1648(68)90535-8 16. Rabinowicz E. , Metal Transfer during Static Loading and Impacting , Proc. Phys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... that of the original concrete. The patch concrete was more permeable to mass transfer of fluids than the original concrete. Chloride diffusion rates were higher in the patch concrete than the original concrete. There were some differences between the aggregate in the patch concrete compared to the original concrete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... locally to create a layer of low-alloy steel between the handle and the weld metal. This low-alloy zone had sufficient hardenability to form martensite when mass quenched by heat transfer to the cover. Failure was due to brittle fracture. A brittle martensite layer in the weld was the result of using...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... galvanic effects. (c) Local damage can result from cuts across heavily worked areas. End grains should not be left exposed. (d) Galvanic corrosion is possible if a coated component is cut. When necessary, the cathodic component of a couple should be coated. (e) Ion transfer through a fluid can result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in connections may be markedly different than the stresses in the members. These examples show stress transfer through (a) web plates, (b) flange plates, and (c) groove welds to the flanges. Fig. 3 Shear lag factors are used to account for the stress state in connections where some, but not all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to increase with temperature. The high-iron alloys, however, showed higher mass losses at 705 °C (1300 °F) than at 925 °C (1700 °F). At 815 and 925 °C (1500 and 1700 °F), the higher vapor pressure of molten FeCl 2 may have caused any halide corrosion product to be removed as quickly as it formed. Also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... abrasion is said to exist when loose particles are trapped between rubbing solids. They become momentarily fixed in the rubbing process to produce scratching but may also roll in the interface to produce material removal by adhesive transfer to the loose particle. Adhesive transfer or adhesive wear almost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Ω r 2 cos θ r + Ω ̇ r sin θ r (Eq 11) F By = m B e Ω r 2 sin θ r − Ω ̇ r cos θ r where m B is the unbalance mass located at a distance e from the geometrical shaft center, and Ω r is defined as: Ω r = d θ r...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... The subject service failures occurred in boiler desuperheaters in five modern Naval power plants of compact construction and having therefore high fluxes through heat-transfer surfaces. These desuperheaters consist of steel tubing submerged in the water of the steam drum. Superheated steam, at 950 F in most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., nondestructive testing, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The tube was made from SA 210A1 carbon steel that had been compromised by wall thinning and the accumulation of fire and water-side scale deposits. Investigators determined that the tube failed due...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a cluster of cavities. Interactions between bubble collapses in a cluster may be very complex. Energy generated by the collapse of outer cavities in the cluster may be transferred to the cluster center, leading to an increase of local hydrostatic pressure higher than that due to an individual collapse...