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mass loss

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., nondestructive testing, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The tube was made from SA 210A1 carbon steel that had been compromised by wall thinning and the accumulation of fire and water-side scale deposits. Investigators determined that the tube failed due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... metal was a construction steel of 60 to 75 kp/sq mm strength. Thick-walled parts of steels of such high strength must be preheated to approximately 200 deg C along the edges prior to welding to minimize the strong heat losses by the cold mass of the part. In the case under investigation this either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... Courtesy of MDE Engineers, Inc. A corrosion test was performed according to ASTM G 67 ( Ref 1 ). The test confirmed the susceptibility of this particular material to intergranular corrosion as the test sample suffered a mass loss of 67 mg/cm 2 (429 mg/in. 2 ). By the standard, susceptible materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... In the worst case scenario, such failures would lead to unzipping of entire molecules into thousands of CH 2 O mers, which because of the low boiling point (−21°C), would lead to huge mass losses and severely compromised structural characteristics. To test this hypothesis, the weight percents as a function...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Mass loss vs. number of compound impact cycles for aluminium 2011 T3 specimens tested against 17-4 PH stainless steel counterfaces with varying sliding velocities (impact stress 10.8 MPa). Source: Ref 5 Fig. 10 Mass loss vs. number of compound impact cycles for 17-4 PH stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and cavitation conditions. There is no universal law for erosion rate (mass loss per unit time) evolution with period of exposure to cavitation. In most cases, however, a little mass loss is observed in the early stage of cavitation (incubation stage). This stage often is followed by a period of great increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of delamination. The image was taken from the impact crater of EN8 steel tested at 60° impact. Fig. 9 Delamination wear of EN8 steel in a 60° impact While mass loss in impact wear mainly results from wear debris arising from the subsurface zones, wear also occurs as a result of plastic deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., however, showed higher mass losses at 705 °C (1300 °F) than at 925 °C (1700 °F). At 815 and 925 °C (1500 and 1700 °F), the higher vapor pressure of molten FeCl 2 may have caused any halide corrosion product to be removed as quickly as it formed. Also, chromium is more active at the surface at higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by weight loss and that obtained by galvanic current measurements have been observed. Evaluating Galvanic Corrosion as a Synergistic Corrosion Mechanism Uniform corrosion, pitting, and crevice corrosion can all be exacerbated by galvanic conditions. In addition, any of the tests used for the more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... differences between the true corrosion rate calculated by weight loss and that obtained by galvanic current measurements have been observed. Evaluating Galvanic Corrosion as a Synergistic Corrosion Mechanism Uniform corrosion, pitting, and crevice corrosion can all be exacerbated by galvanic conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in movement of the corrosive solution or medium. This reduces the concentration of dissolved metallic ions in solution in the vicinity of the worn surface, thus accelerating corrosion reactions. Note that corrosion is a diffusion-controlled process involving mass transport. It has been demonstrated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... undamaged. The samples were metallurgically prepared and examined in the unetched condition. A macrograph of a cross section through the crack depicted graphitic corrosion primarily on the OD surface ( Fig. 1b ). A porous mass and significant wall loss was observed on the OD surface ( Fig. 1c...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., arsenic, tin, silver, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, iron, sodium, and potassium were detected in the corrosion product. EDX analysis of the intergranularly attacked portion showed that the copper-zinc ratio had increased. It indicated the selective loss of zinc. Analysis of the porous mass in the crevice...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the metal surface and corrosion rates. Corrosion products and the mass transfer of oxygen play an important role in the total material losses encountered in straight sections of a carbon steel pipeline. The material loss rate is under oxygen mass transfer control, with corrosion being the dominant mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... The erosion of the pot was most severe at the bottom of the pot and had occurred by loss of material from the outer surface of the pot. The appearance and the chemical analysis of the large mass of inclusions found in one area of the pot indicate that they were iron oxides particles. The source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-transport (or diffusion) controlled. The slightly enhanced mass transport results in slightly more rapid metal loss at the tips of the fissures in the deposit, producing grooves at these locations. The physical structure of the deposits in this equipment included a reticulated pattern of intercolumnar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry total positive ion mass spectrum of polyethylene terephthalate Fig. 1 Auger electron spectroscopy secondary-electron image with a 5 μm field of view (FOV) of the nickel surface after removal of approximately 12 nm of surface contamination Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy) Auger electron spectroscopy atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... made of steels). The two primary objectives are to minimize heat losses and to prevent various fluids and solids from coming in direct contact with the outer skin (again, most of the time, made of steels). Unlike thin organic linings and coatings, refractory linings may consist of one or many times...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the outside curve of the bend ( Figure 3 ). The SEM fractographic analysis carried out showed that the bracket failure pre-dated the elbow fitting failure. The loss of engine power is also consistent with the fitting being the final component to fail, resulting in a loss of fuel pressure. The dimensional...