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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and bearings. Equations of motion accounting for misalignment and unbalance were then derived using finite elements. A spectral method for resolving these equations was also developed, making it possible to obtain and analyze dynamic system response and identify misalignment and unbalance conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for aluminium 2011 T3 specimens tested against 17-4 PH stainless steel counterfaces with varying impact stresses (sliding velocity 5.33 m/s). Source: Ref 5 Fig. 9 Mass loss vs. number of compound impact cycles for aluminium 2011 T3 specimens tested against 17-4 PH stainless steel counterfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of impact wear are shown in Fig. 4 . Figure 5 also illustrates how plastic flow may occur in the counterface, where shoulders can form of material removed from the contact zone that is no longer load bearing but would not be measured as lost mass. Fig. 4 Schematic diagrams of the different...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., that is, when the chemical reaction takes place so rapidly at the solid-solvent interface that the solution is quickly saturated and remains so during the dissolution process. In this case, the dissolution rate, j , is controlled by mass transport. Equation 1 reduces to Eq 3 : (Eq 3) j = D δ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by considering the effects of tensional, shear, torsional, and bending stiffnesses, along with the contact and friction between wires. Stanova et al. [ 9 , 10 ] used geometric parametric equations to model some single and multilayered strands. They used MATLAB, CATIA, and ABAQUS software techniques to construct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the return spring, flexibility of the camshaft, and the variation of the pressure angle. The equation of motion of the system is given by [ 7 ] (Eq 1) M q ¨ + C q ̇ + Kq = F t With q = θ c y 1 y 2 y 3 y 4 y 5 x 1 x 2 x 3 T where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The internal capacity is 118 1, the self-mass is 43.4 kg, and the testing proof pressure is 3.1 MPa. As shown in Fig. 1 , the LPG cylinder was fractured up to about 40 cm from the central welded part. The central part of the fracture was about 20 mm wide at the maximum value, being extruded about 25 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the piping. Erosion damage most likely occurs when fluid velocities exceed 2.13 m/s (7 ft/s) ( Ref 1 ). The damage generally occurs first at locations where the direction of flow changes, such as at elbows and U-bends. Flow velocity, V , can be determined using the equation m /3600 = ρ.ν. A , where m...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is in the form of oxidation. The rate equation for oxidation follows the general form: (Eq 5) X = A · e ( − n Q o R T ) t n where X is the oxidation damage (in the form of, for example, mass loss, oxidation scale thickness, etc.), A is a material-specific lumped parameter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the approximate formula: (Eq 2) x = D t where x is penetration distance, D is diffusion coefficient, and t is time to form a microcrack. These equations (along with some simple substitutions) may be combined to yield the following result: (Eq 3) N i = A 2 ν D o...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract This article covers the three most popular techniques used to characterize the very outermost layers of solid surfaces: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Some of the more...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy) Auger electron spectroscopy atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... additional key parameters are the impact angle and the particle velocity. Equations 1 and 3 can be modified to express the wear volume, V , due to solid-particle erosion ( Ref 3 , 5 ): (Eq 7) V = Φ SPE · m ⋅ v 2 2 · H where m is the mass of erosive particles, v...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the specification requirements for Al-alloy AlMgSiPb, but bells “V2” and “N” were machined from Al-alloy AlCuMgPb ( Table 1 ). Chemical Composition and Hardness of the Bells Table 1 Chemical Composition and Hardness of the Bells Samples or reference material Element mass ratios (a) , % Hardness, HB...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to represent a real-world event, such as in the mathematical model of Newton's second law, F = ma , which relates force, F ; mass, M ; and acceleration a . This equation is a basic physical law. Use of properly selected equations allows one to predict the outcome of a physical process without performing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for the disk was performed. The details of the mesh geometry and the model information are provided in Ref 1 . The effects of blade mass, aerodynamic loads, bolt and washer mass, and interactions caused by the spacers on either side of the disk were not considered in these computations. The actual values...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are assumed to exist at important structural details, such as holes or sharp corners, where the accompanying high stresses accelerate crack growth. Using an appropriate crack growth rate equation, the initial flaw is grown mathematically through iterative calculations that take into account the expected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...; J.C. J. App. Phys., 22 , 74 – 81 ( 1951 ). 16. Peterson N.L. : International Metals Reviews, 28 , 65 – 91 ( 1983 ). 17. Faulkner R.G. , Fray D.J. and Jones R.D. , “Worked Examples in Mass Transfer in Materials Engineering” , p. 35 , published...