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manufacturing constraints

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... level of compatibility with the laser beam itself. Powder characterization (sizing, morphology, distribution) is a critical consideration not only in the synthesis phase of design but also in the analysis of failures ( Ref 11 – 15 ). Design also may be limited by various AM manufacturing constraints...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the same material as the competition, especially in a marketplace without real or perceived product differentiation. Quantity Constraints In the case of a single component or structure being designed, it will not be necessary to tool an assembly line or create a manufacturing process capable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... constraints accompany each engineering design, except for unusual critical applications when properties are far more important than relative material expense. Design choices can be severely limited by economic factors, particularly in the manufacture of highly competitive consumer items. It is not unusual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... system. The intention here is simply to set the physical failure within a broader context and then to focus on assessing the design process evidence available within that context. The article purposely does not address issues such as manufacturing, operation, and maintenance, except as they relate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... but also the data, assumptions, specifications, human factors, and organizational factors, the failure analyst can broaden the discovery net when investigating the root cause of failure. Manufacturing, operation, and maintenance may also cause or contribute to a failure, and these aspects are covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... remedies to prevent additional failures. molds thermal fatigue fracture dimensional constraints electroformed nickel cracking distortion finite element modeling thermal stress nickel (commercially pure nickel) Introduction Nickel electroforming is the process that involves growing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometric factors and materials aspects that influence the stress-strain behavior and fracture of ductile metals. It highlights fractures arising from manufacturing imperfections and stress raisers. The article presents a root cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of the fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions together with the constraint introduced by the presence of the imperfection (i.e., the stress-intensity, or K , field) Metallurgical structure These factors are described later in this article, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Tensile tests were conducted on longitudinal specimens machined from the tube material. None of these specimens had surface cracks at or near the welded areas. Table 1 shows the tensile and hardness results in addition to the values provided by the manufacturer and the ASTM specifications. The values...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propagation direction parallel to shear lips Mixed-mode fracture (incomplete constraint) Tightly closed crack on surface Possible cyclic loading Possible processing imperfection, e.g., from shot peening, quench cracks Radial marks and chevrons (v-shape) Point toward crack initiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and the path of fracture Load conditions (monotonic or cyclic) Environment Geometric constraints that influenced crack initiation and/or crack propagation Fabrication imperfections that influenced crack initiation and/or crack propagation In the latter case, it is very important to make...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the rigorous and detailed failure investigation of the capsule from the Apollo 1 fire. A second capsule, the next in line, was also sacrificed to better understand the failure and to determine the root cause. During the failure investigation, many other design and manufacturing flaws were discovered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., including those that come from a deficient design, poor material, or mistakes in manufacturing. Whether those “defects” exist in a given component that is being subjected to the failure analysis process can often only be determined by someone with a materials background. The reasons for this are related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of curves shown in Fig. 1 . Early in the product life, the number of failures may be elevated. These failures are often attributed to manufacturing and/or quality control errors, such as a deficient molding procedures, improper assembly techniques, or material defects. As the design matures, these errors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with thermal stresses and constraint conditions, resulted in intergranular brittle fracture. welded nozzle assembly brittle fracture localized heating chromium alloy steel transgranular cleavage dimple rupture dye penetrant testing welding parameters 0.1%C-1.25%Cr-0.8%Mo-0.2%V steel (chromium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and intermittent constraints such as those caused by impingement of two surfaces, although more permanent joints may also be involved. Depending on relative hardness, impinging surfaces may lead to gouging, wear, or even fracture. This is one reason to take note of the manufacturing finish of neighboring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... levels, followed by a discussion on the role of failure analysis and the appreciation of quality assurance and user expectations. Systematic analysis of equipment failures reveals physical root causes that fall into one of four fundamental categories: design, manufacturing/installation, service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be used in (but are not necessarily limited to) situations where failures result from overloading, stress corrosion, fatigue, stress concentrations, or inappropriate manufacturing processes. X-ray diffraction residual-stress analysis methods can also be applied to the evaluation of corrective measures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that many people define the causes of failure in a rather binary manner: was the part defective or was it abused? Obviously, there are many types of defects, including those that come from a deficient design, poor material, or mistakes in manufacturing. Whether those “defects” exist in a given component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the next in line, was sacrificed during the investigation to better understand the failure and to determine the root cause. During the failure investigation, many other design and manufacturing flaws were discovered. These discoveries led to the implementation of many improvements as the Apollo program...