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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and examined microscopically to determine the statistical distribution of the forged-in oxide scale and the propensity to initiate fatigue cracks. Several steering arms that were unused were also sampled and examined for forged-in oxide scale. Magnetic Particle The location on the steering arm where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Visual inspection of the modified frame revealed indications of a crack joining two adjacent fastener holes. Fluorescent magnetic particle inspection confirmed the indication and revealed additional crack indications ( Fig. 2 ) at several of the fastener holes. Subsequent inspection of this modification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was strongly reduced in bulk from the inside and covered with a thick crumbling layer of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3-O4). This was a corrosion product resulting from the operation of the boiler. In addition, it was decarburized from the inside, and interspersed with grain boundary cracks. This form of attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The artificial light source should have sufficient intensity to permit observation of discontinuities in the translucent material and any variations in material thickness. Lighting Conditions of Observation <xref rid="a0006764-ref9" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 9)</xref> Optical Laser Scanning Magnetic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... at concentrations of inclusions in this area. Fig. 3 Junction piece at 32 1 2 in. (82.5 cm) from outer edge of girder. Profile of fracture is indicated by arrow. Note concentration of cracks in this area. Magnetic particle testing disclosed a series of lamellar microcracks. The heaviest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a head to the chipping intensity of its edges. Fig. 8 Scanning electron micrographs of head crashed on disk of Fig. 9 . Note rail edge chips (above) and adhesion of transferred magnetic oxide coating (bottom) Fig. 9 Scanning electron micrograph of hard error area of particulate hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... most widely used are visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic testing. Table 1 ( Ref 4 ) provides a brief definition of these methods (other than visual) and their uses and limitations. Figure 1 shows photographs of some actual inspection situations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... demonstrated here to occasional short lengths of one or two turns that have no visible or magnetically detectable opening to the surface and that cannot be detected until the spring is stretched out of shape. The cause of this condition is overdrawing, which results in intense internal strains, high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... diam. The spindle was then shot peened with S170 shot to an Almen intensity of 0.010 to 0.012 A. Following shot peening, the shank was nickel sulfamate plated to 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) over the finished diam, ground to finished size, and cadmium plated. Visual and stereomicroscopic exam showed faint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Markings Physical Appearance Magnetic-Particle Inspection Tooth Characteristic Study Surface Hardness Checks The pitting occurred along the lowest point of the active profile. A case hardness survey and a microscopic examination should be made of this area. Also, the tooth section should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alleviate some difficulties, and air-hardening steels permit designs that would otherwise be impractical. Fig. 1 This die of manganese oil-hardening steel cracked (highlighted by magnetic powder) at the sharp change of section in quenching. A fillet or even an undercut could have eliminated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... maintenance practice. Magnetic Particle and Ultrasonic Inspection Because the operating temperatures of the steam turbine were below 480 °C (900 °F), creep was not considered a problem. Therefore, a fracture mechanics approach was used for condition assessment. Detailed discussions of this methodology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... intimation of trouble was the onset of what was described as a high pitched noise of great intensity, audible over a radius of a quarter of a mile. While the part of the range concerned was being isolated, the pitch of the noise gradually fell, passing through a period of irregular oscillation before finally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... or made visible by means of magnetic particle inspection ( Fig. 3 ). The starting points of these fissures lay partly on the edge formed by the transverse and longitudinal boring and partly next to it in the longitudinal boring itself ( Figs. 4 and 5 ). From this location the fissures entered the cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The SEM allows for high-magnification study of surfaces by utilizing electrons instead of visible light. This instrument is equipped with magnetic lenses and coils, which scan the sample surface with electrons (primary electrons) that are emitted from an electron gun...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and magnetic particle testing. It covers the effects of various factors on the properties of the part that may impact failure analysis, describes the characterization of damage modes and crack sizes, and finally discusses the processes involved in application of NDE results to failure analysis. crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... channel section and an internal fillet-welded diaphragm. Sections from each of the cross members were subjected to a complete analysis, including chemical analysis, magnetic particle testing, mechanical testing, scanning electron microscope/fractography, and metallography. The primary mode of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a crack has a single origin it may he presumed that the stress intensity at the affected part has been just sufficient to start a crack at the most sensitive spot present. A multiple origin is therefore generally indicative of a more severe stress than a single origin, i.e. in addition to the most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... field at the crack tip in terms of stress intensity ( K ) in linear elastic fracture mechanics. The crack-tip stress-intensity factor, K , uniquely characterizes the elastic stress field near a crack and represents the crack driving force that controls the onset of brittle fracture and the rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...