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magnetic force microscopy

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and tested. It was determined that the gusset plates failed in the heat-affected zone via an intergranular microcracking mode due to hydrogen-assisted underbead and toe-weld cracking. Proper nondestructive testing techniques for magnetic particle and radiographic inspection of the plate-weld gusset areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...). Heat is absorbed from and rejected to the regenerator screen matrix during each half of the flow cycle. The variation in helium temperature caused by the shuttling of helium through the heat exchangers, coupled with inertial forces of the moving displacer and piston, creates the pressure wave...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... inventory and the field were tested by magnetic particle inspection. One inventory bolt failed because of a transverse crack near the head-to-shank radius. It was deduced that either a 100% magnetic particle inspection had not been conducted during bolt manufacturing, or the crack went undetected during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to Failure Magnetic-particles inspection of the initial batch of 50 heat-treated parts after cadmium plating revealed several tiny radial cracks ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Heat-treated end frame component after cadmium plating. Several tiny cracklike indications, primarily in the base fillet radial zones...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression. This hammering forces the hot metal to flow and conform to the die impression. The finishing impression is generally the censer section of the die. It is used to produce the final shape before trimming. Closed-die forgings can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... included nondestructive testing, metallography, and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the failure was attributed to transit fatigue, caused during highway transportation. Cracks along the toes of the weld from both the outside and inside surfaces, the transgranular nature of cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are intended to undergo cyclic loads from repeated body motion, the risk of fatigue fracture exists, similar to any engineered component subject to such an environment. For knee and hip implants, these forces are generally caused by weight-bearing loads associated with daily activities such as walking, stair...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... over simple visual inspection Most metals and composites with nonporous surfaces Magnetic particle Magnetic particles are attracted to breaks in magnetic lines of force. Near-surface flaws sensitive to magnetization; includes blow holes, laps, and cracks Not applicable to nonmagnetic metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... accretion of rust at the same location. The surface condition of the unbroken studs looked fine after cleaning, with no visible signs of corrosion or other damage. They were also subjected to a non-destructive magnetic particle inspection; there were no indications of cracking. Cracks in the failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... bolts. The splint was clamped to the noumenon by bolts with a pretightening force. The assembly interfaces between the splint and noumenon are indicated by dashed lines in Fig. 1b . Figure 2 exhibits the splints with cracks. The steady clamp was operated in open air. The working conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is repeated after some pipe sections and fracture surfaces have been removed. Magnetic-particle or dye-penetrant examination, particularly if a progressive cracking mechanism such as fatigue or stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is suspected or if mechanical damage (i.e., gouging or denting) is evident...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., complete service records are not available, forcing the analyst to work from fragmentary service information. When service data are sparse, the analyst must, to the best of his or her ability, deduce the service conditions. Much depends on the analyst's skill and judgment, because a misleading deduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of cleaning, inspection, and magnetic-particle testing techniques during assembly of the components onto the axle. A press is required to push the wheels and the bearings onto the axle, because the inside diameter of the wheel hubs and bearing components is smaller than the diameter of the wheel seat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../material variables, test methods, temperature, and the nature of the applied stresses. In contrast, physical properties are those typically measured by methods not requiring the application of an external mechanical force (or load). Typical examples of physical properties are density, magnetic properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ) show some of these discontinuities. Therefore, the NDE may require the use of visual examination, or surface-enhancing examination techniques (dye penetrant, magnetic particle, etc.), as well as volumetric-type examinations (radiography, ultrasound, etc.) to check the subsurface conditions of the welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with tensile forces but sometimes combined with bending and/or torsional forces. In addition to failures in shafts, this article discusses failures in connecting rods, which translate rotary motion to linear motion (and conversely), and in piston rods, which translate the action of fluid power to linear motion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but sometimes hollow—that is used to support rotating components or to transmit power or motion by rotary or axial movement. Even fasteners, such as bolts or studs, can be considered to be stationary shafts, usually with tensile forces, but sometimes combined with bending and/or torsional forces. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was submitted for failure analysis to determine the cause of cracking. Investigation The cylinder head was magnetic-particle inspected by both the head and coil methods. No indications were present on the cylinder head, except those shown in Fig. 1 and 2 . The head was cracked on the rocker-arm pan...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Effects of Construction Practices Many imperfections are detected before actual operation. For example, a crack indication was found in a forged nozzle by magnetic-particle inspection before welding of the nozzle into a pressure vessel. The nozzle manufacturer had found the crack and, instead...