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magnetic flux controllers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature (scanning electron microscope). Optical fractography. Original magnification: 1500× Fig. 15 Crater crack in carbon steel fillet weld termination as revealed under wet fluorescent magnetic-particle testing Fig. 16 Centerline hot crack in AISI/SAE 1020 steel Fig. 17...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... affect weld quality and must be carefully controlled to prevent porosity, cracks, fissures, undercuts, incomplete fusion, and other weld imperfections. The sources of weld imperfections (or defects) are also discussed in this article, as they relate to service failures or rejection during inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... noise Changes in magnetic flux from stress applied to magnetic material Online monitoring of magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are accordingly classified as hard or flexible. Recently 3.5″ or smaller disks have been introduced with glass substrates. Magnetic heads are made of a high permeability material, thin laminations of which are cemented to provide a gap for generating the recording field or collecting the media flux for writing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... local attack has taken place at butt welds in water-wall tubes, particularly those situated in zones of high heat flux. To prevent on-load corrosion an adequate flow of water must occur within the tubes in the susceptible regions of a boiler. Corrosion products and suspended matter from the pre-boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Grate bars in the traveling grate indurators in several taconite processing units suffered excessive corrosion following a conversion from acid to fluxed pellet production procedures. The campaign life of the HH grade cast stainless steel bars was reduced from more than 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... properties of the material, joint design, prebraze cleaning, brazing procedures, postbraze cleaning, and quality control. Factors that must be considered include brazeability of the base metals; joint design and fit-up; filler-metal selection; prebraze cleaning; brazing temperature, time, atmosphere, or flux...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by weather and outside force. However, these basic tools did not have the ability to consistently or accurately detect internal or external corrosion or linear anomalies such as manufacturing flaws, welding discontinuities, SCC, or fatigue. Subsequently, magnetic flux leakage (MFL) tools and ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and service conditions. Once the failure is accurately classified, corrective action and recommendations can be made. Appropriate solutions can involve redesign, change in materials selection or processing, quality control, changes in maintenance or inspection schedules, protection against environment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the temperature of the steam inside the tubes, heat transfer is primarily controlled by the conductance of fluid films at the inner and outer surfaces. Although higher heat fluxes cause higher tube-wall temperatures, deposits have a greater effect on tube-wall temperatures and therefore on overheating. A tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to that of a eutectic G 120 Nonmetallic inclusions; slag, dross, flux G 121 (a) Nonmetallic inclusions whose appearance or analysis shows they arise from melting slags, products of metal treatment or fluxes Slag, dross or flux inclusions, ceroxides G 122 (a) Nonmetallic inclusions generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 16 Magnetic iron oxide 2.9 20 Silicate scale (porous) 0.09 0.6 Steel 24.5–44.7 170–310 (a) Source: Ref 1 . (b) Source Ref 2 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic steels Table 5 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... , Lamping G. A. , and Jonas O. , “Boiler Tube Failure: Prevention, Correction, and Control,” EPRI Report 65-6467, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA , 1989 . 2. Becker W. T. , “ Thermal Fatigue Failure in a Vaporizer ,” Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis , Vol. 2 , Ed. by Esaklul...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... mechanisms will also create localized heating because a constant magnetic flux is being applied to a smaller amount of material. Therefore, misalignment of the CIM drain tube, combined with wall thinning from creep, pitting, and plastic deformation, further increased the likelihood of localized heating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... chemical industry corrosion resistance gas turbine components heat exchangers material selection power generation industry process control refractories structural ceramics REFRACTORY MATERIALS are used in various industrial applications to line the interior of a multitude of vessels (mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ) and consist of electromagnetic instruments, direct current and permanent magnet method instruments, and magnetic flux leakage instruments. Chemical analysis of the individual wires does not provide significant insight, because most specifications do not require any particular composition. Most wire ropes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be located. Success has been achieved by using internal nondestructive inspection devices based on the magnetic flux-leakage principle to locate hard spots. Once the hard spots are located, they can be removed, shielded to prevent the cathodic current from reaching them, or tempered to reduce the hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... part failure Causes Type of failure Numbers Low water cut-off Faulty design fabrication or installation Corrosion or erosion Operator error or poor maintenance Burner failure Pressure control failure Other Burned or overheated Collapsed inward Combination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 1984 by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Initial part failure Causes Type of failures Numbers Low water cut-off Faulty design fabrication or installation Corrosion or erosion Operator error or poor maintenance Burner failure Pressure control failure Other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of controlling SCC in practice, as is discussed later. Stress-corrosion cracking is a subcritical crack growth phenomenon involving crack initiation at selected sites, crack propagation, and overload final fracture of the remaining section. Failure by SCC is frequently encountered in seemingly mild chemical...