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macrostructure

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of striking tools with emphasis on field tests conducted by A.H. Burn and on the laboratory tests of H.O. McIntire and G.K. Manning and of J.W. Lodge. It focuses on the metallography and fractography of spalling. The macrostructure and microstructure of spall cavities are described, along with some aspects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showing the lateral crack The first stage forgings and undeformed shank/raw bar stock were cleaned properly and prepared for macrostructure examination. The macrostructure of the first stage forging contained numerous oxide (globular) and sulfide (elongated) inclusions in the central portion ( Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fractured failure across the teeth Selection of Samples Chemical Analysis Heat Treatment and Mechanical Test Microstructural and Macrostructural Analyses Results Discussions The premature fracture of the crusher jaws under investigation is attributed to brittle fracture. Heavy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that the region of greater hardness possessed a different macrostructure from the normal regions of the blade. This different macrostructure appeared round all the bolts at approximately the same place and differed only size. Specimens for microscopic examination were taken at various characteristic places...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...- and microstructural examinations of the cross-sections using an optical microscope (LEICA DMRX). The specimens were mounted with resin, ground and polished using standard metallographic technique. The polished specimens were etched with 2% Nital solution to reveal the microstructures. The macrostructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...; at the other end, the original paint was undisturbed. This indicated misalignment of the pinion and therefore abnormally heavy loading at the end from which the fatigue cracks originated. Figure 1(b) shows a section through a broken tooth that was etched to reveal the macrostructure. The surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in this locality. It was evident, therefore, that the particular mode of failure was related to the inherent structure of the material. Fig. 3 Macrostructure of shaft × 3 Subsequent microscopical examination confirmed the generally intergranular mode of failure. This is illustrated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the visible crack where UT had indicated there was subsurface cracking. Analysis of samples 11, 12 and 13 removed near the failure site established that the leak was the result of advanced stress-rupture cracking in the weld metal. Figure 3 shows the macrostructure of the three-bead width...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the as-received link ( Fig. 1c and d ) display a segregated structure of complex carbides (black needlelike phase), (FeMn) 3 C carbides (white-on-white area), and pearlite (gray areas) in an austenite matrix, which accounts for the macrostructure shown in Fig. 1(b) . Figure 1(b) is a macrograph of a polished...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and longitudinal cracks in the bends. It appeared that the as-received tubes possessed numerous stress raisers in the inner surface. Macroetching revealed that the structure of the tubes had recrystallized in heat treatment. The macrostructure of the straight sections was uniformly fine grained. In the bends...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... to receipt by the boiler-makers was rejected. From the macrostructure of the rivets it was evident that they had been made by the usual process of upsetting the heads from bar stock. It was most unlikely that the bars had been supplied in the gassed condition, but even if they had, then the defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... to rock the bars laterally. It will be observed from the photograph Figure 2 that the macrostructure of the bar and arm materials is markedly different. Microscopical examination showed the arm to have been cut from a plate with a pronounced banded structure. The surface depicted in the illustration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Fig. 6 Fatigue crack depth versus estimated number of landings. Microstructural Analysis Metallographic sections taken through the fracture disclosed a number of features. The macrostructure of the arm was typical of a forged high-strength aluminum alloy ( Fig. 4 ). The forging operation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... are discriminated by the EDS analysis ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 Microstructure of the shaft. Fig. 5 Microstructure of the brass nut. Fig. 3 shows that the shaft is held onto the valve seat by the nut by contact with a tip having a different macrostructure. The interface between these two regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and mounted in epoxy in such a manner that the cross section of the pipe's circumference was perpendicular to the plane of examination. The surface was polished and then electrolytically etched with a 10% oxalic acid etch for macrostructural depiction. The weld insert, weld deposit, crack and counterbore area...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Macrostructural examination, either by cold etching (more common) or hot etching, is very useful for detecting gross problems. Prior-austenite grain size is frequently evaluated by the Shepherd fracture grain size technique, a simple but accurate approach. X-ray diffraction can be used to determine the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Macrostructural examination, either by cold etching (more common) or hot etching, is very useful for detecting gross problems. Prior-austenite grain size is frequently evaluated by the Shepherd fracture grain size technique, a simple but accurate approach. X-ray diffraction can be used to determine the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... 52 Macrostructure showing a number of pitlike locations on the inner surface of the tube Fig. 54 Schematic illustration of the three layers formed during coal-ash corrosion of a superheater tube Fig. 55 (a) Photograph of water-wall tube sample showing fishmouth-type rupture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4