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macroscopic scale

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and/or interdendritic in appearance compared to smoother, transgranular fatigue type fractures. Often, gross plastic yielding is visible on a macroscopic scale. Commonly observed microstructural characteristics include creep voiding along grain boundaries and/or interdendritic regions. Internal voids can also nucleate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the formation of low melting point eutectics or corrosion; show a similar appearance when investigated on a macroscopic scale. Conductors (devices) Plate metal Turbogenerators Copper Hydrogen damage and embrittlement This article originally appeared in the issue of “Der Maschinenschaden...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... by macroscopic examination of the fracture surfaces. The surface of the web was heavily scaled and decarburized. A gross forging defect extending about 1.8 mm along the fracture surface was disclosed by examination of a micrograph of a section through one of the fatigue origins. Shallower forging defects were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... matching studies of the mating surfaces of the closed crack; the cleavage steps and other macroscopic features matched precisely on a macroscopic scale, whereas the finer-scale features superimposed on the macroscopic cleavage (the grain-boundary grooves and the fine terraces visible only at high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... characteristic of a 3 1 2 % nickel steel in the hardened and tempered condition. Some banding was evident, due to the persistence of the dendritic structure of the ingot from which the wheel was made, and this was also evident on a macroscopic scale on the cross-section shown in Figure 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
..., with increased temperature stimulating formation of more intermetallic compound, initially by solid-state reaction but eventually in liquid phase reaction. Electron probe microanalysis provided in this case the necessary link between understanding events on a micrometer scale with those on a macroscopic scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the macroscopic and microscopic scales of observation. However, what about the cold-worked material? There was plastic deformation (presumably compressive) during manufacturing, and the presence of prior cold work may explain the absence of the macroscopic necking. Metallographic observation and/or hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to be the better choice, partially because the bolt hole can, in some respects, be considered a crack arrester on a macroscopic scale, and also because, as discussed below, there is some uncertainty as to the chain of events after the ductile crack below the bolt hole was created. If a second initiating event...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... worked material. The microscopic mechanism of fracture in the annealed material is a ductile mechanism (microvoid coalescence), and macroscopic deformation preceded fracture. Thus, there is little confusion in describing the fracture as ductile on both the macroscopic and microscopic scales...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... overload failures, are characterized by little or no macroscopic plastic deformation. Fracture features and mechanisms on a microscopic scale can have components of ductile or brittle crack propagation, but the macroscopic process of fracture is characterized by little or no work being expended in the form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on a microscopic scale may have components of ductile or brittle crack propagation, but the macroscopic process of fracture is characterized by little or no work being expended in the form of permanent (i.e., plastic) deformation. The macroscopic behavior is essentially elastic up to the point of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... increases and dislocations encounter barriers to their motion. At low temperatures, an ever-diminishing creep rate results, but if the temperature is high enough, dislocations rearrange and annihilate through recovery events. On a more macroscopic scale, creep deformation also produces microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This can be considered on three scales: macroscopic, microscopic, and electron fractographic [ 12 ]. Combining observations made with the naked eye and with the help of a magnifying glass the macroscopic examination has two main thrusts. As an initial examination it serves to define items for further...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The stress-intensity factor (particularly its cyclic range) characterizes the driving force for fatigue crack propagation of macroscopic cracks growing under conditions of small-scale yielding. The stress-intensity factor is relatively uniform along a straight through-thickness crack in simple components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... factor (particularly its cyclic range) characterizes the driving force for fatigue crack propagation of macroscopic cracks growing under conditions of small-scale yielding. The stress-intensity factor is relatively uniform along a straight through-thickness crack in simple components loaded in tension...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and A 194. However, the investigation (which included visual, macroscopic, metallographic, SEM, and chemical analysis) showed that austenitic stainless steel and a nickel-base alloy were used instead. The unspecified materials are more prone to corrosion, particularly galvanic corrosion, which proved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... visual examination of the failure area and adjacent areas to determine, photograph, and/or schematically record: (a) origin of failure; (b) presence of stress concentrators; (c) presence of temper color or scale on fracture faces; (d) orientation and magnitude of stresses; (e) failure mode and mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... of the smeared metal on the flange is visible in Fig. 5 . It can be seen to contain grains of scale. Macroscopic etching reveals numerous fine cracks not visible to the naked eye ( Fig. 4 ). Figure 4 also shows a zone approximately 1.5 cm broad which has undergone structural changes as a result of the raised...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... interspersed with blisters and coarse roundish oxide inclusions. Nevertheless, attack by scaling was not detectable macroscopically neither in the weld seam nor right next to it. Only at some distance from the seam has a small corrosion pit been cut (location a in Fig. 9 ). Here the surface was covered...