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macroscopic examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and fatigue beach marks around two of the inclusions were revealed by macroscopic examination of the fracture surface. Large nonmetallic inclusions that consisted of heavy concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were revealed by microscopic examination of a section through the fracture origin. The forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A section of cast iron water main pipe contained a hole approximately 6.4 x 3.8 cm (2.5 x 1.5 in.). The pipe was laid in clay type soil. Examination revealed severe pitting around the hole and at the opposite side of the outside diam. A macroscopic examination of a pipe section...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... fracture A bridge wheel from a 272,160-kg (300-ton) stripper crane failed after 1 1 2 years of service. The wheel was forged from 1055 steel, and the tread, hub faces, and hub bore were machined. The wheel fractured in the web near the rim. Investigation Macroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract AISI type 321 stainless steel heat exchanger tubes failed after only three months of service. Macroscopic examination revealed that the leaks were the result of localized pitting attack originating at the water side surfaces of the tubes. Metallographic sections were prepared from both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... radius of the hook. Beach marks (typical of fatigue fracture) were found extending over approximately 20% of the fracture surface. Numerous cracks were revealed by macroscopic examination of the torch-cut surfaces. It was revealed by macrograph of an etched specimen that the cracks had initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the main-bearing journal at the primary crack. Fatigue cracking with low-stress high-cycle characteristics was disclosed during macroscopic examination of the crack surface. Sulfide inclusions, which acted as stress raisers, were found to be present in the region where cracking originated. As a corrective...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A gear belonging to a pressurized heavy-water reactor refueling machine failed after 10 years in service. The material specified for the gear was a type C90700 bronze. Macroscopic examination focused on three gear teeth that had fractured completely at the roots, and fracture zones...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract After six years of service, three water shut-off valves on a copper water line in a residential building were found to be inoperative. Macroscopic examination of the valves after disassembly revealed that all three failed at the key that holds the spindle in the gate. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... will then be nital etched for a macroscopic examination. Macroscopic Examination Macroscopic examination ( Fig. 1 ) of the nital-etched surface revealed that the spalled areas retained very little, if any, induction hardened case. The compressive loads originated the failures at the case/core interface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... revealed cracks at the root of several threads. This testing method did not provide much more information than did the visual (macroscopic) examination. Surface Examination Visual After degreasing and cleaning were conducted, a macroscopic examination revealed cracks in several adjacent threads...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This can be considered on three scales: macroscopic, microscopic, and electron fractographic [ 12 ]. Combining observations made with the naked eye and with the help of a magnifying glass the macroscopic examination has two main thrusts. As an initial examination it serves to define items for further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... from the fracture area, and the wheel surfaces were examined. The anodized coating showed distinct twin-parallel and end-grain patterns between which the fracture occurred (section A-A, Fig. 1 ). This type of grain pattern has been observed in other wheels that had forging defects. Macroscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion products, deposits, or coatings. Determine mechanical properties and compare with specifications or standards. Perform macroscopic examination to evaluate homogeneity, integrity, and quality. Perform metallographic examination to evaluate microstructural features. Determine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... In-house Investigation Visual Examination Macroscopic Examination Chemical Composition of Received Samples Chemical Composition of Corrosion Products Galvanic Corrosion Chloride Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Bolts Conclusions Recommendations Metallographic Examination Bolt...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fatigue fatigue fracture fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination polymers FATIGUE failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. The magnitude of each individual load event is too small to cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... radiographically. Eleven longitudinal cross sections were prepared for macroscopic examination, including locations near each end of the through-wall portion of the crack and sections selected on the basis of radiographic crack indications. Major cracking was found in all sections examined. At all locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... mottled appearance. Visual and stereomicroscopic examination of the tubing and fracture surfaces revealed the presence of corrosion pitting and longitudinal cracking on the exterior of the tubing, Figure 3 . Macroscopic examination disclosed that the mottled regions of the tube were actually...