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macroscopic casting size

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... As-cast grain size can be construed from fracture surface contrast. (b) Diagram of significant features; arrows show fracture directions. Areas 1, 2, and 3 represent cleavage “flakes”. Cross-hatched area around flake 1 is overload fracture in same original cast grain as underlying flake. Stippled areas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the specimen, and uses minimal and relatively simple equipment. It does not destroy the specimen or alter fracture surfaces. Macroscopic examination is particularly useful in correlating fracture surface characteristics with part size and shape and with loading conditions. Fatigue origins are frequently...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ductility can still experience crack initiation and growth since some slight plasticity may by present. Relatively brittle metals such as hardened steel and gray cast iron do not always form microscopically identifiable striations and macroscopic beach marks in cyclic failures. Transgranular Cleavage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is accessible), requires little or no preparation of the specimen, and uses minimal and relatively simple equipment. It does not destroy the specimen or alter fracture surfaces. Macroscopic examination is particularly useful in correlating fracture surface characteristics with part size and shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... polymers but not on a macroscopic scale in a metallic material. With regard to fatigue, materials with poor ductility can still experience crack initiation and growth, because some slight plasticity may by present. Relatively brittle metals such as hardened steel and gray cast iron do not always form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... given in inches The spalls were found after 277 pipes had been cast. The average performance for molds of this size was about 2100 castings. Normal pouring temperatures were 1290 °C (2350 °F) for gray iron and 1370 °C (2500 °F) for ductile iron. Investigation Visual inspection of the bore...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Fig. 7 ), if present, are macroscopic surface features that indicate the region of crack initiation and propagation direction. They are common and dominant macroscopic features of the fracture of wrought metallic materials but are often absent or poorly defined in castings. The “v” of a chevron points...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by special methods, machining, or fracture of the casting B 111 (a) Internal, rounded cavities, usually smooth-walled, of varied size, isolated or grouped irregularly in all areas of the casting Blowholes, pinholes B 112 (a) As above, but limited to the vicinity of metallic pieces placed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Fig. 6 ), if present, are macroscopic surface features that indicate the region of crack initiation and propagation direction. They are common and dominant macroscopic features of the fracture of wrought metallic materials but are often absent or poorly defined in castings. The “v” of a chevron points...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast steel that had aluminum nitrides segregated to the grain boundaries Macroscopic examination is commonly made using a low-power binocular stereomicroscope, which gives...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the naked eye (blowholes, pinholes) B 110: Class B 100 cavities internal to the casting, not extending to the surface, discernible only by special methods, machining, or fracture of the casting B 111 (a) Internal, rounded cavities, usually smooth-walled, of varied size, isolated or grouped...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chunks of rock. It is accompanied by heavy impact and by high bending and compressive forces on the wearing parts, which are made as heavy-section castings. As a result, the choice of ferrous alloys that can be used with confidence in these applications is limited. Traditionally, austenitic 12% Mn steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and handling of large chunks of rock. It is accompanied by heavy impact and by high bending and compressive forces on the wearing parts, which are made as heavy section castings. As a result, the choice of ferrous alloys that can be used with confidence in these applications is limited. Traditionally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracks. Sharp-bottomed tool marks can initiate fatigue fractures even though the general contour of the area has a generous radius. The shape, size, and cross section of a specimen or structural component can have a large effect on both the macroscopic and the microscopic appearance of the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the pitted areas. Alternatively polishing and etching micro-sections for viewing at high magnification made crack detail more visible. Optical and scanning electron micrographs showed cracking in austenitic cast steel and cast iron due to both internal tensile and critical residual stresses; the latter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intensify the damages of surface [ 7 ]. In addition, some casting defects found in depth of casting by macroscopic examination which could trigger other defects and accelerate the damage mechanisms ( Fig. 3 ) [ 10 ]. These fabrication defects not only might be active zones for farther defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (macroscopic and microscopic) Residual-tension stress distribution in surface layer Processing inclusions introduced Plastically deformed debris as a result of grinding Voids, pits, burrs, or foreign material inclusions in surface Physical Transformation of phases Grain size and distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Source: Ref 30 There is also a particle size distribution in high-strength, age-hardening aluminum alloys, but different behavior in an aluminum casting alloy has been reported ( Ref 31 ). The iron- and/or silicon-rich phases are the inclusions that are smaller than other phases created...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the sealed compressor chamber. A unique combination of applied stress, residual stress, stress riser, and grain size helped isolate the failure mechanism to a single production lot of material. fastening pin corrosion stress concentration copper alloys grain size variations scanning electron...