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macroscale characteristics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension compression...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a description of the microscale models and mechanisms for deformation and fracture. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are discussed for various specimen geometries and loading conditions. The article reviews the general...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is well preserved and if the analyst is knowledgeable, the fracture appearance reveals details of the loading events that culminated in fracture. An understanding of how cracks nucleate and grow microscopically to cause bulk (macroscale) fracture is an essential part of fractography. The ability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is knowledgeable, the fracture appearance reveals details of the loading events that culminated in fracture. An understanding of how cracks initiate and propagate microscopically to cause bulk (macroscale) fracture is an essential part of fractography. The ability to accomplish this resides in interpretation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... cracks that originate on planes of maximum shear stress. They usually form initiation sites for the fatigue fractures and are determined by the intensity of the stress concentration in the critical area, being characteristic of Stage I fatigue. In this case, ratchet marks were noticed on about 95...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Methods Fire Resistance of Polymeric Materials Flame Spread Tests for Fire Response Characteristics Ease of Ignition Building Materials Evolution of Smoke or Toxic Gases Heat Release Ease of Extinguishment Tests for Particular Applications of Polymeric Materials Electrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was ductile overload and that the mechanical properties of the bolts were consistent with exemplar bolts that had been supplied. After eliminating other sources of excessive load application, the most probable cause of failure was ascribed to variances between the frictional characteristics of the bolt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at which yield occurs. In a nonconstant-volume material (polymers), the hydrostatic stress affects yield behavior, so that a von Mises, octahedral shear, or Tresca-type criterion is inaccurate. In application, consideration of the plane-strain state of stress is significant in understanding macroscale...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., consideration of the plane strain state of stress is significant in understanding macroscale brittle fracture surface orientation in tensile loading and the difference in fracture toughness for plane stress and plane strain loading (see the section “Fracture Mechanics” in later paragraphs). The difference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... during their lifetime. This article focuses on fractography of fatigue. It provides an abbreviated summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms: fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation, and final fracture,. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., causing a rupture (separation or fragmentation event). The fracture can be ductile or brittle, and it may be ductile at the macroscale and brittle at the microscale, or vice versa. Macro Ductile Tensile Fractures Macro ductile tensile fractures exhibit necking—simultaneous diminishing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A high percentage of intergranular fracture tends to produce relatively rough fracture surfaces on a macroscale. The rough surface of the region of intergranular fracture above the large grain in Fig. 14 illustrates this quite well. Intergranular fracture obscures fracture markings and provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymers. The article describes fracture mechanics solutions and approaches to the fatigue characterization of engineering polymers when dealing with macroscale fatigue crack growth. It includes mechanistic images for high-density polyethylene, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene, nylon 6, 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a consumer ( Ref 12 ). These characteristics of quality also apply internally to those in organizations, either in the services, or in manufacturing, operating, or administering products, processes, and systems ( Ref 12 ). Computer software systems for quality control have also gained prominence. The intent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the preliminary stages and general procedures, techniques, and precautions employed in the investigation and analysis of metallurgical failures that occur in service. The most common causes of failure characteristics are described for fracture, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to form the final rubber article. The image shown in Fig. 17 was obtained by slicing the part to examine the internal characteristics of the rubber area that was associated with field failures. The area with horizontal lines at the bottom of Fig. 17 was adjacent to a metal surface; the area...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the primary or secondary working of the material, or the metallurgical characteristic of a particular alloy system. Fig. 2 Ten different types of flaws that may be found in rolled bars. (a) Inclusions. (b) Laminations from spatter (entrapped splashes) during the pouring. (c) Slivers. (d) Scabs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the likelihood of overload fractures are included. The article focuses primarily on the contribution of embrittlement to overload failure. The embrittling phenomena are described and differentiated by their causes, effects, and remedial methods, so that failure characteristics can be directly compared during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Microfractography may simply be used to add weight to a macroscale determination of ductile or brittle behavior. Evidence for distinguishing intergranular from cleavage fracture is most easily obtained by this method. Fine characteristics of ductile dimples can reveal additional information not available...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in customer satisfaction. However, this notion of the quality of a product or system is multifaceted. Juran described quality as “fitness for use” ( Ref 5 ). TQM defines quality as the ability to satisfy the needs of a consumer ( Ref 10 ). These characteristics of quality also apply internally to those...