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macrographic examination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was found by visual examination to have occurred at the weld joining the sling body and the cross member. Inadequate joint penetration and porosity was revealed by macrographic examination of the weld. Lower silicon content and a higher magnesium and manganese content than the normal for alloy 4043 filler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... at the inside radius of the hook. Beach marks (typical of fatigue fracture) were found extending over approximately 20% of the fracture surface. Numerous cracks were revealed by macroscopic examination of the torch-cut surfaces. It was revealed by macrograph of an etched specimen that the cracks had initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... approximately 45 months. Visual examination of the vanes and the area surrounding the mainshaft-bearing housing revealed a dark corrosion product that was soft, porous, and of low mechanical strength. There were areas with severe erosion. Macrographs of sections through the pump shell and a vane showed darker...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of 455 to 595 deg C (850 to 1100 deg F). Examination included visual inspection, macrograph of a nital-etched specimen from an as-received chain link 1.85x, micrographs of a nital-etched specimen from an as-received chain link 100x/600x, normal microstructure of as-cast standard austenitic manganese...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the desired curvature, preheated, then solution treated, water quenched, and then aged for 8 to 10 h. Analysis (visual inspection, slow-bend testing, 65x macrographic analysis, macroetching, spectrographic analysis, hardness tests, microhardness tests, tension tests, and microscopic examination) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... loads encountered in (a). (c) Macrograph of the sectioned failed rod-end body. The cracks in the swaged ring should be attributed to both the high inclusion content in the material and the abnormal loads shown in (a). Pertinent Specifications Rod and Body Race Surface Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Failed portions of a 4140 steel axle from a prototype urban transit vehicle were examined to determine the cause of failure. The testing procedures included visual examination, macrofractography, metallography, chemical analysis, and hardness and tensile testing. The analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The rear wall tube section of a boiler that had been in service for approximately 38 years was removed and examined. Visual examination of the tube revealed a small bulge with a through-wall crack. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the bulged area consisted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and rejuvenated by heat treatment and the application of new coating. In this particular case, the damage was revealed during a periodic inspection. Fig. 3 Macrograph showing the bucket from the first stage in as-received condition The bucket was subjected to a series of examinations, including...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... undamaged. The samples were metallurgically prepared and examined in the unetched condition. A macrograph of a cross section through the crack depicted graphitic corrosion primarily on the OD surface ( Fig. 1b ). A porous mass and significant wall loss was observed on the OD surface ( Fig. 1c...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... after it broke, which resulted in extensive loss of metal between the holes. 80x micrograph and 4x macrograph of a 5% nital etched longitudinal section, and chemical analyses showed the poppet did fit 1213 or 1215 specs. However, hardness measurements showed surface hardness was excessive-61 to 65 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The dished ends of a heavy water/helium storage tank manufactured from 8 mm (0.3 in.) thick type 304 stainless plate leaked during hydrotesting. Repeated attempts at repair welding did not alleviate the problem. Examination of samples from one dished end revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., chemical analysis, 0.75x images, 2x macrographs after light acid cleaning to remove corrosion product, and 75x micrographs) supported the conclusion that the absorber tubes failed by SCC initiated by ammonia contamination in the lithium bromide solution. No recommendations were made. Absorber tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at a southeastern utility were examined for the cause of failure. The rods were reportedly 6 mm (0.25 in.) diam and constructed from 304 stainless steel. The maximum temperature in the cooling tower is 130 °F. The rods are located in an area of the cooling tower where the air contains droplets of water, below...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... This article examines a case of cold cracking failure in the construction industry. Fortunately, the failure was identified prior to final erection of the structural members and the weld was successfully reworked. The article explains how various welding parameters, such as electrode/wire selection, joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... examination was described. The tubes of the furnace were radiographed during shut down and twenty-four tubes in the first furnace and 53 in the second furnace showed significant fissuring. Although, radiography was concluded to be a practical technique to provide advance information, it was limited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A failed crosshead of an industrial compressor was examined using optical and SEM. The crosshead was an ASTM A148 grade 105-85 steel casting. On the basis of the observations reported and available background information, it was concluded that the failure began...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A failed crosshead of an industrial compressor was examined using optical and scanning electron microscope. The crosshead was an ASTM A148 grade 105-85 steel casting. On the basis of the observations reported and available background information, it was concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for Electromagnetic Examination of Ferromagnetic Steel Wire Rope ,” E 1571-11(2016)e1, ASTM International , West Conshohocken, PA , 2016 , www.astm.org 4. “ Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Chain ,” A 413/A 413M-07(2012), ASTM International , West Conshohocken, PA , 2012 , www.astm.org 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... sheet from an air compressor aftercooler that failed by SCC. (a) Configuration of tube sheet. (b) Micrograph of a specimen etched in 10% ammonium persulfate solution showing intergranular crack propagation. 250×. (c) Macrograph of an unetched specimen showing multiple branching of cracks. 5...