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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the main-bearing journals. A crack along the fillet, almost entirely through the web, was observed in one of the main-bearing journals. Numerous coarse segregates, identified as sulfide inclusions, were identified by macroetching the surface during metallographic examination of a section taken through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Second, macroetching showed that the bolts has been machined from stock rather than forged, and the threads cut rather than rolled. It was also determined that hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking also played a part in the failure of the high-strength bolts. Missile launchers Attachment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Evidence that burning was confined to the hinge end of the clamp indicated that the metal was overheated before or during the upset forging operation. Recommendations included notifying the supplier of the burned condition on the end of the clamp. The clamps should be macroetched before cadmium plating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... curvature, preheated, then solution treated, water quenched, and then aged for 8 to 10 h. Analysis (visual inspection, slow-bend testing, 65x macrographic analysis, macroetching, spectrographic analysis, hardness tests, microhardness tests, tension tests, and microscopic examination) supported...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Macroetched cross section through fracture of conveyor chain link. Note incomplete penetration at weld root. Etched with ammonium persulfate More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Macroetched cross section taken 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) behind fracture shown in Fig. 1 . Note repair weld and weld-deposit crack. Etched with ammonium persulfate More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 4 Macroetched specimen of failed I-beam. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 5 Typical macroetched cross section of cover, vane, welds, and disk. All hardnesses are HRC. ∼0.51×. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 2 Macroetched turbine blades showing characteristic grain structure for equiaxed (EQ), directionally solidified (DS), and single crystal (SX) castings. Off-axis grain boundaries in DS and SX castings significantly improve creep resistance and overall stress rupture life compared to an EQ More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 10 Macroetched cross section through a gear tooth showing the geometry and thickness of the hardened case. Note the irregular case depth. Nital etchant, 1.86× More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 2 Macrographs showing a cross section through the bulge after a hydrochloric macroetch. The dark areas denote hydrogen damage. A closeup view of the bulge is shown in (b). More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... about 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) behind the fracture surface. The cut surface was ground, then macroetched with an ammonium persulfate solution. This revealed a repair weld ( Fig. 2 ). No HAZ was observed, indicating that the weld had been rehardened and tempered after welding. It was obvious, however...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... temperature Fig. 3 Sulfur print of I-beam that failed. Fig. 4 Macroetched specimen of failed I-beam. Fig. 1 Schematic of I-beam and fracture path. All dimensions given in millimeters. Fig. 2 I-beam that failed. Abstract An I-beam of IS-226 specification—I...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and pitting damage. Approximate location of a subsurface crack is shown. Fig. 8 Photograph showing surface wear typical of that observed on all of the teeth. 0.22× Fig. 9 Surface pitting (arrows) observed on all of the teeth. Fig. 10 Macroetched cross section through a gear tooth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Crack 2 is between arrows on inside face of cover. ∼0.59×. Fig. 5 Typical macroetched cross section of cover, vane, welds, and disk. All hardnesses are HRC. ∼0.51×. Fig. 6 Cross section of crack 2 ( Fig. 4 ), showing a primarily intergranular mode. Note the presence of compound...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Macrographs showing the external (a) and internal (b) surfaces of the bulge. Note the thick deposit on the internal surface (b).∼4.35× Fig. 2 Macrographs showing a cross section through the bulge after a hydrochloric macroetch. The dark areas denote hydrogen damage. A closeup...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the bottom for examination and a cross section was made whose plane ran parallel to the fracture plane at a distance of 20 mm. In macroetching as well as in the Baumann print of this plane, phosphorous and sulfur segregations appeared as may be expected in the vicinity of a cavity ( Figs. 4 and 5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grinding. The cracks are emphasized with magnetic particles. Macroetching of the surfaces revealed the classic scorch pattern indicative of abusive grinding. The failure, however, was not due to poor grinding practice, but was caused by failure to temper the dies. The interior hardness was 63 to 64 HRC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to failure to temper the part. Two AISI D2 tool steel dies, which measured 57 by 60 by 29 mm or 51 mm thick (2¼ by 2⅜ by 1⅛ in. or 2 in. thick), were observed to be cracked after finish grinding. The cracks are emphasized with magnetic particles. Macroetching of the surfaces revealed the classic scorch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... had been made to back-gouge the reverse side of the groove before welding. The 6.4-mm ( 1 4 -in.) wide band observed in the fracture was apparently part of the unfused weld-preparation surface at the root of the weld. Fig. 3 Macroetched cross section through fracture of conveyor chain...