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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... focuses on a number of factors that are responsible for tool and die failures, including mechanical design, grade selection, steel quality, machining processes, heat treatment operation, and tool and die setup. Selected References Selected References General • Azzalina C.S. , Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The first part of this article focuses on two major forms of machining-related failures, namely machining workpiece (in-process) failures and machined part (in-service) failures. Discussion centers on machining conditions and metallurgical factors contributing to (in-process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... similarly machined with identical surface finishes. This would alleviate comparison of fatigue results of the actual components processed by different vendors, utilizing different tooling, methods, etc. The fatigue testing performed and presented within this work was accomplished in a manner that eliminated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and so on) and machining processes (drilling, turning, milling, and so on). Second, tools and dies are generally used at higher hardnesses than most other steel products; 58 to 68 HRC is a typical range. Dies for plastic molding or hot working are usually used at lower hardnesses, typically from 30 to 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... bearings are frequently classified as thin walled (<6 mm, or 0.24 in., in diameter) and thick walled. Thin-walled bearings are produced by high-speed forming and machining processes from materials in flat strip form, and the terms strip-type bearing and sheet-metal bearing are occasionally used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Parts that are cold worked, including both cold-formed parts and stampings, will have a residual-stress pattern characteristic of the process. Machining and other finishing processes introduce surface residual stresses that are often tensile and may be significant, especially in parts with thin sections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... description of REBs as high-tech machine components. It discusses heat treatments, performance, and properties of bearing materials. The processes involved in the examination of failed bearings are also explained. Finally, the article discusses in detail the characteristics and prevention of the various types...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., as well as the noted observations, are described. Six stages [two machined (MP) and four electron beam (EB) welded] from the mercury diffusion pumps operating in the Tritium Purification process at SRS have been analyzed to determine their condition after nine months of usage. Several cracks were found...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... manufacturing operations create uniform strain gradients, and uniform strain from mechanical working almost never occurs. Parts that are cold worked, including both cold-formed parts and stampings, will have a residual stress pattern characteristic of the process. Machining and other finishing processes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... attached to the shaft. A circumferential crack in the main shaft at an abrupt change in shaft diam just below the upper radial bearing was revealed by visual examination. The smaller end of the shaft was found to be slightly eccentric with the remainder when the shaft was set up in a lathe to machine out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... A good definition of a failure is “the inability of a component, machine, process, or culture/thinking to function properly.” It is not just things that break. Failures come in all shapes and sizes. They can be individual parts, entire machines, an assembly, a system, or a process. Broken down...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and Residual Stress Other factors found to have a significant effect on susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking are associated with the fabrication of the bolt itself. The final machining process results in a rough shank surface ( Fig. 11 ). Surface finish requirements were quite liberal, allowing up...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Rolling-contact fatigue (RCF) is a surface damage process due to the repeated application of stresses when the surfaces of two bodies roll on each other. This article briefly describes the various surface cracks caused by manufacturing processing faults or blunt impact loads...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A forged aluminum alloy 2014-T6 catapult-hook attachment fitting (anodized by the chromic acid process to protect it from corrosion) from a naval aircraft broke in service. Spectrographic analysis, visual examination, microscopic examination, and tensile analysis showed minute...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract Plunger shafts machined from 4150 steel bar stock were involved in a series of fatigue failures. The fractures consistently occurred at two locations on the shafts: the shaft fillet and either side of a machined notch. The material specification for the shafts required 41xx...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... are prone to smearing and work hardening during machining, it was recommended that these types of steels be machined only with sharp, short tools mounted in rigid structures. In addition, residual stresses should be eliminated by post-process annealing in a protective atmosphere. Chlorides Worm gears...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of a machined thread groove was visible on the fracture surface. Heavy oxidation at elevated temperatures was indicated as most of the surface of the flaw was black. Fine secondary cracks aligned transverse to the growth direction was revealed by scanning electron microscopy. It was established...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-quality” steel. Minor seam depths can be acceptable because some amount of the bar surface is lost as scale during the heating process. Minor seams also become unimportant when it is recognized that the forging will be machined on all surfaces prior to use. In these cases, a specified amount of machining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... conversion board. Digital data enters, and the computer processes the data in both text and graphics. The computer receives signals every 50 milliseconds. The main program performs the calculation and shows curves that reflect changes of forming force, machine power, and working speeds in graphical form...