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machining allowances

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The locking collar on a machine failed suddenly when the shaft it restrained was inadvertently subjected to an axial load slightly higher than the allowable working load. The locking collar fractured abruptly, producing four large fragments. This allowed the shaft to be propelled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...” condition required machining of heat treated material and final chrome plating. Cracking of these parts was ultimately prevented by changing the manufacturing procedure to allow for a reheat treatment, consisting of solution treatment and aging of the machined part just prior to plating. For parts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... calculations to be very close to the maximum allowable fluctuating stress for the material. The wiper springs were concluded to be fractured in fatigue and the cyclic loading resulted from cam rotation. The maximum applied stress approached the allowable limit due to high stress-concentration factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and surface groove located at midspan. Drillings machined from the bolt underwent chemical analysis, which confirmed that the material was AISI 1045 carbon steel, in accordance with specifications. Two sections cut from the bolt were subjected to metallographic examination and hardness testing. The fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... are not uncommon in rolled bars and generally do not present a serious problem if allowance has been made for adequate stock removal before finishing. Unfortunately, the shaft in this case was to be used without further machining and was therefore rejected. Use of components with surface-defect indications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Plunger shafts machined from 4150 steel bar stock were involved in a series of fatigue failures. The fractures consistently occurred at two locations on the shafts: the shaft fillet and either side of a machined notch. The material specification for the shafts required 41xx series...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... face of the boss in contact with the die. Use roll forming rather than machine cutting for the threads. Devise a design that allows a wrench to engage the boss to allow insertion or removal of the stud bolt (for example, a hexagonal or square-headed boss). Conduct nondestructive testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was activated by a nonfunctioning induction hardening coil that did not or was not allowed to harden the midprofile of several teeth. Hardness Induction hardening Mining Motor trucks Spur gears 4147H UNS H41470 Heat treating-related failures Spalling wear A portion of two large spur tooth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... in magnitude to allow seepage of hydraulic fluid. The grip was subsequently removed and sent to the depot laboratory to ascertain the mode and cause of the crack. The manufacturer's drawing specifications specify that the grip be machined from a 2014 aluminum alloy forging heat treated to the T6 condition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to failure with a torque wrench. In no case did the band material fracture. In a second attempt to duplicate the failure, a tensile testing machine was used to pull the two fittings apart while the hose was clamped in place. When the testing machine was operated at maximum head travel (approximately 20...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The wear had been caused by incorrect machining of the shaft splines, which prevented the bevel gear nut from locating correctly against the gear. Aerospace engines Aircraft components Bevel gears Drives Engine components Jet planes Military planes Splines 16 NCD 13 Fretting wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... In the zone where the bearing was in compression, there was a clean surface indicating recent fracture. Finally, there were areas where the weld did not meet AWS specifications for convexity or concavity. These areas were weak enough to allow fatigue cracks to initiate. Recommendations to prevent reoccurrence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., a grooved feed section is sometimes incorporated. While grooved feed sections tend to offer higher process stability and allow extrusion of very-high-molecular-weight polymers (with a low coefficient of friction), they also must be cooled so that plastic does not melt prematurely, and they have very high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that contacted the bushing and areas at the machined radius where the cadmium coating had been damaged, which allowed corrosion pitting to occur. Optical microscopy showed that the crack origin was located at the machined radius within a region that was severely pitted. Electron microscopy revealed that most...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for situations where closed-form solutions are available. Simplifying many engineering structures to more basic components allowed the development of beam and plate theories; these are described in many standard engineering texts ( Ref 4 , 5 , 6 ). Finite element analysis is a computer-based analytical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Laser/dimensional metrology photogrammetry, laser total station, laser tracker, coordinate measurement machines Either angle/angle stereo image or angle/time-of-flight allows measurement of surface profile of the object. Reverse engineering, dimensional metrology, crack and pit detection Limited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... indicating rotational vibration fatigue. Keeping bolts tight solved this problem. In another case, grinding machines were unable to produce surfaces of uniform quality and smoothness on steel bearing products. Measurements showed that self-excited vibrations were created when particular steels were ground...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... region on the outside surface of the shaft, where a corrosive medium had been allowed to concentrate on one side of the shaft during storage. During service, the leakage of chlorine- and sulfur-bearing circulation water onto the damaged area of the shaft resulted in intergranular stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the opportunity to overcome some of the size, orientation, and reinforcement limitations of normal injection molding. Injection compression molding avoids the pressure peak obtained during normal injection. This allows larger parts to be made on the same tonnage machine as smaller parts. Internal stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to the usual surface defects. At 10 6 cycles, as before, the allowable stress for a forged surface as read from Fig. 3 is 150 MPa (22 ksi), while for the machined surface it is 315 MPa (46 ksi)—both considerably less than the yield strength (690 MPa, or 100 ksi). Fig. 3 Effect of surface condition...