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lubricant evaluation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... corrosion can also accompany wire rope failures as the protective lubricant is removed and the natural passive oxide layer on the wires is disrupted. Nondestructive Examination Most nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are not applicable to wire rope failures. The size of the individual wires...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the types of activities required for the resolution of wear problems. These include examining and characterizing the tribosystem; characterizing and modeling the wear process; obtaining and evaluating wear data; and evaluating and verifying the solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the analysis of the history of the contact surface impossible ( Ref 89 ). Fig. 14 Principal test setups for evaluating galling resistance. (a) Pin-on-disk test. (b) Modified cylinder-on-cylinder test. Adapted from Ref 89 Another often unrecognized problem in lubricated wear testing aimed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract Housings (being tested as part of a material conversion) from an electrical appliance failed during an engineering evaluation. They had been injection molded from a commercial polycarbonate/PET blend. Parts produced from the previous material, a nylon 6/6 resin, had consistently passed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) failure Introduction In a jet engine, oil scavenge pump is an accessory, together with pressure pump, that provides correct lubrication to the anti-friction bearings of the main shaft. The pump is generally driven by the accessory gearbox, that consists in train of gearshafts (32CrMoV13...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by a wedging action as the blade pitch adjusted during a revolution. Fatigue of the rim occurred as a result of inadequate lubrication in the bearing, which led to load transfer across the rollers, onto the rim. Bearings Bolts Lubrication Pretensioning Turbine blades Wind turbines Ferritic steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... on the conditions (the clamp is the cathode of a galvanic cell with zinc) and the brittle nature of the cracks, the failures were diagnosed as hydrogen-stress cracking. Laboratory experiments were conducted to substantiate the above diagnosis and to evaluate the effect of annealing and the hydrogen-stress cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... For qualitative evaluation, microscopy of the lubricant can be performed to look for wear debris trapped within the lubricant. The evaluation of wear with added third-body abrasives using polymer mass loss can be difficult for similar reasons to lubricated experiments. Abrasives embedded in the polymer surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as an accelerated method to measure the RCF of bearing steels. The influence of lubrication type on steel ball RCF was also evaluated using the machine ( Ref 33 , 34 , 35 ). The Institute of Petroleum gathered numerous papers ( Ref 36 ) that describe various test results, ball dynamics, and kinematics using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... condition is achieved involving complete separation of the rolling elements by the lubricant, passage of electrical current can generate sparks (arcing) resulting in the formation of microcraters by removing the material from the rolling elements and raceways [ 2 ]. Typical reported diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... equipment on an approximately 20-year-old business jet airliner. The aircraft had been brought in for service, and the standard wing de-mating process was initiated to evaluate the extent of corrosion to the airframe. For reasons that were not clear at the time of the investigation, the complete service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-element bearings can sustain considerable wear before they become unsuitable for operation. Wear failure can be evaluated by dimensional or weight measurement of the components, by observation of loose wear particles near the contact area, or by spectrographic analysis of the lubricant for wear particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... loss increase. See the article “Friction and Wear of Rolling-Element Bearings” in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18 of ASM Handbook , 2017. Figure 3 illustrates those different internal structures. Fig. 3 Examples of different rolling-element bearing structures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... 3 Fatigue failure of shaft originating drilled radial hole. The sheaves were lubricated by grease introduced from the end face of the shaft, it passed along an axial hole and then through a short radial hole to the region of the shaft carrying the sheaves as can be seen in Figure 3 where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; this mechanism is also called pitting. The number of cycles to failure, N , follows a power-law relationship: (Eq 4) N = ( K p max ) n where K and n depend on the material strength and the lubrication regime. The lubrication regime can be evaluated using the Λ-factor concept, given...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and greater precision in the manufacture of bearings, most of the surface and subsurface stress risers listed in Fig. 2 have been addressed. Nevertheless, the demand to operate rolling-element bearings in harsh tribological environments of lubrication, load, contamination, and temperature push for higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... increases with the fiber volume fraction. The performance, however, deteriorates disproportionately if the filler, solid lubricants, and fibers are included in the composite. An empirical wear equation for SFRPs has been introduced; it relies on the crack propagation theory to evaluate the normal load F...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polymers unidirectional FRP composites wear performance REINFORCED POLYMERS are used extensively in applications where resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear failure is important for materials selection. Polymers form a special class of materials because of their self-lubricity, which allows them...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine samples from the tubes. An energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis was carried out to evaluate the zinc distribution. Results showed that the failure was due to dezincification. Replacement of the tubes with new tubes fabricated from...