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low-temperature creep

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... temperatures at different stresses. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 9 Schematic creep curves for alloys having low and high stress-rupture ductility, showing the increased safety margin provided by the alloy with high stress-rupture ductility. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 14 Fracture mechanism map...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... regions examined. It was concluded that preferential nucleations of graphite nodules in a series of bands weakened the steel locally, producing preferred fracture paths. Formation of these graphite bands probably expedited the creep failure of the tube. Future failures may be avoided by using low-alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract This article presents a failure analysis of 37.5 mW gas turbine third stage buckets made of Udimet 500 superalloy. The buckets experienced repetitive integral tip shroud fractures assisted by a low temperature (type II) hot corrosion. A detailed analysis was carried out...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low-cycle or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. Generally, the type of failure is established by examination of fracture surfaces and comparison...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... accuracy of the extrapolation at low strains where the original form exhibited poor correlations ( Ref 26 ). It has been recognized over time that practical engineering alloys used in high-temperature applications, especially low-alloy steels, may reside in the tertiary creep regime for most...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are often conducted on time-dependent failure mechanisms. The principal types of elevated-temperature failures are stress rupture, creep, low- or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, and coating degradation in gas turbines. For high-temperature tubing and piping components, embrittlement phenomena can occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the additional 5% elongation (thus tertiary creep) can be estimated by extrapolation of the test results to the service temperature (solid line): 20,000 hrs. This is low compared to the time-to-rupture. Furthermore, it is observed that the line for the time to reach 5% is not parallel to the line for rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the wires returned from service indicated annealing had occurred ( Table 1 ). The chemical analysis indicated that low carbon, Type 304 stainless steel was used to fabricate the catalyst basket. This was undesirable due to the lower creep strength in the low carbon alloy. The nickel content of the wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by approximately 70 mm (2.75 in.). The tube 2 sample consisted of two tubes welded together with the failure entirely within the carbon steel portion. The tube 2 failure was a thin-lipped rupture displaying a high degree of deformation. The low-alloy portion of tube 2 had no failures associated with it. Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... , typical of Incoloy 800H aged at 800 C. The average grain size was 150 um and no abnormal presence of second phases was observed. The allowable stresses used in this class of equipment are low, to permit a useful life of 100,000 h. At this stress level for Incoloy 800H, the formation of small creep voids...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... hours. However, the X20CrMoV12-1 steel underwent 232 starts without pressure and 183 with pressure, while the low chromium steel only underwent 186 starts throughout its lifetime of 79,200 hours. The higher number of starts led to a thicker layer of magnetite and higher working temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that hot bending be used for fabrication of the curved parts. A change of alloy to a low-alloy chromium-molybdenum allay to protect against heat was also suggested. Chemical processing equipment Chemical reactors Creep (materials) Pipe bends Tubing Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This probably is the result of the differences between the mechanisms of low and high temperature (creep) fracture, viz., in low temperature RTE fracture, initiation and propagation of microcracks are rate controlling while at high temperatures the nucleation and growth of creep cavitation, dislocation mobility...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the grain-boundary sliding Grain-boundary carbides (in polycrystalline materials) to reduce the creep rate by inhibiting grain-boundary sliding The way in which cracking occurs could be envisioned as oxidation of a grain boundary at high temperatures and cracking by slip-band impingement at low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reagents also impact the creep rupture properties of plastics by shortening the time for brittle fracture to occur over that which exists in the absence of the reagent. Sometimes ESC reagents will create brittle fracture at a low stress level in a polymer such as polyethylene that normally fails...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Deposits Water-Wall Corrosion or Reduced Atmosphere Corrosion Coal-Ash Corrosion Oil-Ash Corrosion Case Study: Rupture of a Finned Water-Wall Tube because of Oil-Ash Corrosion Low-Temperature Corrosion or Acid Dewpoint Corrosion Case Study: Failure of an Economizer Drain Tube due to Acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-American Conference on Materials Technology ( San Juan, Puerto Rico ), 1985 , p 7.1 – 7.6 15. Antolovich S.D. , Liu S. , and Bauer R. , Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Rene 80 at Elevated Temperature , Metall. Trans. A, Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. , Vol 12 ( No. 3 ), 1981 , p 473...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was secondary• Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper toughness, grain size• Loading direction may show failure was secondary or impact induced• Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Note the greater extent of material loss at the trailing edges, where low-angle ductile erosion is prevalent. In the hot section of the gas turbine, solid-particle erosion can act in concert with high-temperature oxidation to cause material loss. At high angles of incidence, the particulate can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and sites for cavity nucleation Relatively low values of the hardness and tensile strength ( Table 2 ), associated with a decrease in the mechanical resistance of the weld. After 65,000 h of operation at an average temperature of 840 °C (1545 °F) and an average internal pressure of 3.1 MPa (450 psi...