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low-k dielectrics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Consequently, a low dielectric constant (relative permittivity) value is preferred. A high dielectric constant value is ideal for the second application so that the capacitor dimensions can be as small as possible. With respect to AC losses (e.g., dissipation factor or power factor), materials used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Dielectric constant Dissipation factor At 50 Hz At 10 6 Hz At 50 Hz At 10 6 Hz Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 10 13 >10 16 >70 2.3 2.3 2 × 10 –4 2 × 10 –4 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 10 17 >10 18 60–80 2.1 2.1 2 × 10 –4 2 × 10 –4 Polystyrene (PS) 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... as small molecules (monomers and oligomers, hardeners, catalysts) and, during heating, start as a low-viscosity liquid. The heat activates a series of chemical reactions that cause the growth of polymer chains, causing an increase in viscosity until the thermoset becomes rubbery at the gel point as cross...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metallic components at low stress levels, however, is more likely to result in small, submicron wear particles and a highly oxidized surface state. Under moderate conditions of normal or compound impact, it has been shown that that wear is caused by a process similar to that of adhesive wear during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). Repetitive impact of metallic components at low stress levels, however, is more likely to result in small, submicrometer wear particles and a highly oxidized surface state. It has been shown that under moderate conditions of normal or compound impact, wear is caused by a process similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Coefficient of thermal expansion, 10 −6 /°C °C °F °C °F W/m · K Btu/ft · h · °F Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) 99 210 60 140 0.27 0.16 53 ABS-polycarbonate alloy (ABS-PC) 115 240 60 140 0.25 0.14 35 Diallyl phthalate (DAP) 285 545 130 265 0.36 0.21 27...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... increasingly produced and are extensively used in quite a diverse group of engineering applications because of their versatile properties, light weight, and low cost. In 2019, ~370 million tons of plastic was produced globally, as compared to 360 million tons in 2018 ( Ref 2 ). Plastics designed for load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and G Ic ) of polymers at low strain rates under plain strain, whereas ISO 17281 ( Ref 43 ) accounts for impact speeds. Additionally, ISO 29221 ( Ref 44 ) specifies a method for the determination of the plane-strain crack-arrest fracture toughness ( K Ia ). Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a consequence of high coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal diffusivities. Although time-consuming techniques can be used to analyze thermal stresses, several useful qualitative tests are described in this article. The classification of internal stresses in plastic parts is covered. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... MMT nanoclay usually contains hydrated Na + and K + ions, which are only compatible with hydrophilic polymers. The hydrophilic silicate surface must be substituted with organophilic ones to promote the polymer-filler interaction; this is achieved by ion-exchange reactions with cationic surfactant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., Arizona and Miami, Florida: 2004–2013 Table 1 Average environmental parameters of the reference locations Phoenix, Arizona and Miami, Florida: 2004–2013 Environmental data H total (295–2450 nm) H UV (295–385 nm) T min T max DTR ave DTR max MJ/m –2 /year –1 °C °F °C °F K...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... encountered by the product, since ESC is a complex phenomenon. Creep Creep is the gradual increase in strain that occurs in a material when it is subjected to a constant load over an extended period of time. Viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, can undergo creep at relatively low stress levels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... / ( β − 5 ) EH ε f μ α exp − γ 2 F N where K 9 is a parametric constant and γ 2 is a dimensionless constant. When V S is high, the material softens, causing crack propagation to occur more easily than in the case of low V S . Hence, depending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and temperatures that vary from extremely low, as in arctic or cryogenic environments, to extremely high, as in gas turbines. In addition, shafts may be subjected to a variety of loads—in general, tension, torsion, compression, bending, or combinations of these. Shafts are also sometimes subjected to vibratory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) fiber/filament, and (d) profile Typical Materials and Their Properties Materials to be used in extrusion are typically thermoplastics with high viscosities (low melt index) and high melt strengths. The typical melt flow index (MFI) for extruded thermoplastics ranges from <1 to ~10 g/10 min...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and temperatures that vary from extremely low, as in arctic or cryogenic environments, to extremely high, as in gas turbines. In addition, shafts may be subjected to a variety of loads—in general, tension, torsion, compression, bending, or combinations of these. Shafts are also sometimes subjected to vibratory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface...