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low-energy electron diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 4. “ Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbian-Vanadium Structural Steel ,” A572 – A515 , ASTM 5. “ Standard Guide for Quantitative Analysis by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy ,” E1508 – E112a , ASTM Depending on the industry and country corresponding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... ( 1982 ). 13. Andrews K. W. , Dyson D. J. and Keown S. R. , Interpretation of Electron Diffraction Patterns , Plenum , New York , p. 172 ( 1967 ). 10.1007/978-1-4899-6475-5 14. Lai C. Y. , “Sulfidation Resistance of Various High-Temperature Alloys in Low Oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., dislocations easily cross slip. The rate of cross slip for a given alloy or element is usually indicated by its stacking-fault energy. Dislocation cross slip is hindered by the presence of stacking faults, and a high stacking-fault energy indicates a low number of impeding stacking faults and an increased...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and microscopic level ( Ref 29 ). This includes methods such as optical and electron microscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, low-energy electron diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Above all, a well documented plan of investigation is needed before any analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) spectroscopy Chemical shift of nuclei Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface and particle morphology Transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) spectroscopy Chemical shift of nuclei Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface and particle morphology Transmission...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the debris was magnetic. Surface Examination After shutdown and disassembly of the engine, it was discovered that the low power output had resulted from fatigue failure of the regenerator screens. Debris found in the engine was identified as fragments of the regenerator screens. The magnetic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pest, a type of degradation that occurs at low temperatures. Based on the results of the investigation, which included SEM/EDS analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that cause low-cycle fatigue and fatigue cracking. Although there are many investigations of superalloys and coatings in the laboratory [ 3 – 5 ], it is important that practical failures during service also be analyzed. In the present study, the first-stage vanes of gas turbine operated at 1350 °C were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Thus, x-ray spectroscopy is simply the manner by which this spectrum of x-rays is produced. Note that this spectrum is limited at both the low and high ends of the energy/wavelength scale. Because it takes energy to remove an electron from its orbital and cause it to be ejected from the atom, the high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for dimensional anomalies, color variation, cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... examination using low-magnification light microscope was conducted on the corroded and fractured bolts as well on the intact nuts. All bolts showed severe general corrosion. The threads of bolts were extensively corroded as shown in Fig. 2 to 5 . One end of the threaded bolts, which were exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and the concentration of CN − available at any given time is so low that no reaction can occur. This allows us to come to the following conclusions. At elevated temperatures, the PETN decomposed sufficiently to produce a high enough concentration of HCN for the gold reaction to take place. The availability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for the materials of interest. bimetal plate shear failure impact energy nickel-base superalloy carbon steel plastic deformation shear testing adhesion strength Inconel 625 (nickel-base superalloy) UNS N06625 ASTM A517 (low carbon steel) Introduction Experimental Procedure Results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... gradient in the weakened liner material. The high temperature facilitated the rearrangement of silver precipitates along low-energy sites on deformation bands. Similar structure has been reported in other investigations of copper-base alloys ( Ref 3 , 4 ). The effect of strain and high levels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... features. Bulk deposits were analyzed using conventional x-ray diffraction, ion chromatography, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Replica deposits were analyzed with the EDXA technique only. The crack was located by the magnetic particle technique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in determining the best instrument for any given application. Secondary electrons are low-energy electrons emitted from the sample as a result of coulombic interactions between the incident electrons from the beam and electrons present in the sample. Emission of secondary electrons is such that as the angle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Backscattered-electron image Fig. 8 Examples of three direct (a to c) and three replication (d to f) procedures for examination of a cleavage fracture in a low-carbon martensitic steel. (a) Light microscope cross section with nickel plating at top. (b) Direct light fractograph. (c) Direct scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the service conditions existing at and prior to the time of fracture. These findings can then be extended by an examination of the fracture surface at low magnification with a stereomicroscope and then at high magnification by electron microscopy, metallography (occasionally), or some combination...