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low-energy atom-scattering spectroscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Thus, x-ray spectroscopy is simply the manner by which this spectrum of x-rays is produced. Note that this spectrum is limited at both the low and high ends of the energy/wavelength scale. Because it takes energy to remove an electron from its orbital and cause it to be ejected from the atom, the high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Discussion Many polycrystalline metals can become brittle and fail along grain boundaries when a low stress is applied. The brittleness has been attributed to intergranular weakness caused by the precipitation or segregation of impurities to grain boundaries. For example, Auger electron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which provide a topographic view of the sample by detecting low-energy electrons emitted from the surface, are used to locate specific areas for more detailed study. Backscattered electron images, involving higher-energy electrons that have undergone scattering processes before escaping from the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a topographic view of the sample by detecting low-energy electrons emitted from the surface, are used to locate specific areas for more detailed study. The BSE images, involving higher-energy electrons that have undergone scattering processes before escaping from the sample, reveal atomic number contrast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... as a % of a monolayer. At low energy values, the data scatter became a limiting factor in the assessment. However, at such values the material was severely embrittled and the data scatter was much less in the practically important regime, i.e., the transition region. The EPR results, however, were disappointing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... results in one or more of the inner electrons being knocked out to a higher electron shell. Spectroscopy is based on the ability of the incident electron to eject a core electron from the atom and the direct relationship between the energy of the photon released with the atomic number. The atom deexcites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced Molecular structure X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Crystalline structure, short- and long-range ordering, percent crystallinity, polymer blend/copolymer Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Crystallite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) spectroscopy Chemical shift of nuclei Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface and particle morphology Transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a function of atomic number Due to their low energy, secondary electrons are typically attracted to a photomultiplier/scintillator detector by placing a positive bias on the detector. For each pixel where the beam interacts with the sample, a signal is collected, processed, and displayed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (NMR) spectroscopy Chemical shift of nuclei Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface and particle morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... molecule typically releases the energy in the form of a photon (fluorescence or phosphorescence) or in the form of heat and falls back into its ground state without any damage. However, the excited chromophore may have sufficient energy for bond dissociation or to abstract a hydrogen atom from the polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... modifier; they are broadly divided into three categories based on critical information provided by the analyses. Chemical Nature Organic and inorganic surface modifiers can be characterized by using spectroscopy (ultraviolet-visible, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance) and x-ray based (energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., but in general the composition of any deposits can be determined by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) or by other techniques. For SMIE, embrittling metal films on fracture surfaces are also sometimes evident from their colour, e.g. for copper and oxidized cadmium, but are often not obvious even using high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... bars that had spent 9 months in service were dipped and rinsed in distilled water containing 1% HNO 3 in order to extract water-soluble salts from the corrosion products. Chemical analysis of the solution, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion-exchange chromatography, yielded Na K + , Ca 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... saturation concentration is attained. Lowering the pH increases the hydrogen saturation concentration slightly, but it greatly increases the adsorption rate of atomic hydrogen, which can explain why low-pH conditions lead to hydrogen damage in shorter exposure times. The presence of diffusible atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the chemical composition of surface residue. Various techniques may be used, including energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Where microbiologically influenced corrosion is suspected as a possible cause or contributor to a failure, deposit samples should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., dislocations easily cross slip. The rate of cross slip for a given alloy or element is usually indicated by its stacking-fault energy. Dislocation cross slip is hindered by the presence of stacking faults, and a high stacking-fault energy indicates a low number of impeding stacking faults and an increased...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Dislocation cross slip is hindered by the presence of stacking faults, and a high stacking-fault energy indicates a low number of impeding stacking faults and an increased tendency to cross slip and hence gall. Nickel and aluminum have poor galling resistance, whereas gold and copper have good galling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compressive hydrostatic component relative to the deviatoric component of stress and decreases with an increase in the tensile-hydrostatic stress component. It is also possible for ductile fracture to require little energy for initiation or propagation if strain-hardening capacity is low. From...