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low-density high-strength extrusion alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Extrusions Protective coatings HE.15 Exfoliation corrosion The aluminium alloy BS. 1476—HE.15 by virtue of its high strength and low density finds application in the form of bars or sections for cranes, bridges and other items of plant where a reduction in dead weight load and inertia stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and bending stresses can occur in a tube produced by drawing, heat treating, and straightening operations. By varying the severity of these operations, it is possible to produce tubes with very low residual stresses or with very high residual stresses that are near the yield strength of the metal. In other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in an aluminum extrusion plant, nitriding is commonly used to surface harden the extrusion dies. In the case of H13 hot-work tool steel, the hardness of the nitrided surface may reach to approximately 56–62 HRC. Therefore, tensile strength values are attained at 56 RC hardness at selected temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which can be based on methods of qualitative physical reasoning. During parametric design, quantitative methods are used to refine the design further. Materials selection during configuration design requires the evaluation of a range of material (e.g., a range of carbon steel, low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... results in an improvement in the surface appearance of the casting. Shrinkage is often aggravated by high pouring temperatures. If the casting does not run with a moderate pouring temperature, it may be because of back pressure due to inadequate venting, use of low-permeability molding material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was secondary• Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper toughness, grain size• Loading direction may show failure was secondary or impact induced• Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (faceted nitride inclusions in a high-strength, low-alloy, or HSLA, steel) Inclusions have a low-strength interface bond (if any) with the matrix and have mechanical properties different from those of the matrix. In steels, these inclusions fall into three general groups: Stringer types...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a particle Growth from a precracked particle (for example, from prior working operations) Cracking in a matrix of limited ductility in which faceted particles cause stress concentration in the matrix (faceted nitride inclusions in a high-strength, low-alloy, or HSLA, steel) Inclusions tend...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... range, crack-growth rates exceed those observed in air by two orders of magnitude and are faster than the values reported for long cracks, while at a high stress range, the rate of cracking is nearly equivalent to that reported for long cracks. For low-strength steels, the crack-size effect does...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Source: Ref 24 Fig. 44 SEM views of intergranular facets within fatigue crack propagation area of cold-worked electrolytic tough pitch copper tested in rotating bending at moderately low stress Fig. 45 Isolated cleavage facet within progressive high-growth-rate fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... T.R. , Williams R.S. , and Peck M.G. , Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Copper , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 13 , Sept 1982 , p 1607 – 1618 10.1007/BF02644801 28. Ritchie R.O. , Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Propagation in Ultra-High Strength Steel: Influence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that indicate low scattering are T N = 2 to 5; medium scattering, T N = 5 to 10; and high scattering, T N > 10. The corresponding scattering range in terms of stresses, T S , can be expressed with the slope k as T S = T N 1/ k . Synthetic S-N Curve The fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... provides clues as to whether the material is high strength (smoother) or low strength (rougher) and whether fracture occurred as a result of cyclic loading. The surfaces from fatigue crack growth are typically smoother than monotonic overload fracture areas. The monotonic overload fracture of a high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for this application. The material was weak in an orientation of relatively high stress. Failure-prevention recommendations involved specification of a nonresulfurized grade of a low-alloy steel. Example 2 illustrates some of the complexity and subtlety of RCA. The material was no doubt chosen for its ease...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... clues as to whether the material is high strength (smoother) or low strength (rougher) and whether fracture occurred as a result of cyclic loading. The surfaces from fatigue crack growth are typically smoother than monotonic overload fracture areas. The monotonic overload fracture of a high-strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., such as high-strength steels. The Rockwell hardness test differs from Brinell hardness testing in that the hardness is determined by the depth of indentation made by a constant load impressed upon an indenter. Rockwell hardness testing is the most widely used method for determining hardness, primarily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... occurs in materials with a high strain-hardening rate and relatively low cleavage strength, or when a geometric constraint (i.e., large hydrostatic stresses) functions as an initiator of cleavage fracture. It also occurs in materials that are embrittled within the grains rather than at the grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are anodic to the main body of the metal and therefore less resistant to corrosion because of precipitated phases, depletion, enrichment, or adsorption. In wrought high-strength heat treatable aluminum alloys, paths of stress-corrosion cracks are always intergranular, because the thermal treatments...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Throttling of valve by the operator outside of the design parameters Flow gages and records Operator logs Low-strength copper nickel alloy construction Material specifications Laboratory analysis Flow-induced cavitation Rumbling noise in system Vibration of system Failure mechanism Erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-chromium-molybdenum alloy: ASTM F 75-82, ISO 5832/IV (1978) Wrought cobalt-base alloys: ASTM F 90-82, ASTM F 562-84, ISO/DIS 5832/6, ASTM F 563-83, ISO/DIS 5832/8 Certain applications—for example, in the skull—involve use of tantalum and niobium, both of which have high corrosion resistance...