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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...? Will the available production machines be able to make the part? Production runs Are the desired production runs consistent with the machines and expected costs? Tooling wear Is tooling wear or maintenance a possible problem that will impact part cost or performance? Weld lines (a) If the process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... if dimensioned in some way? Will the available production machines be able to make the part? Production runs Are the desired production runs consistent with the machines and expected costs? Tooling wear Is tooling wear or maintenance a possible problem that will impact part cost or performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... their early replacement or sharpening. Productivity loss and increased cost are concomitant effects of excessive cutting tool wear. Although it is less recognized, a workpiece material that cannot be machined efficiently and properly is also arguably an important machining failure category. Machining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., and low alloy cost. A chip harvester made from this composition was tested in field with older composition knives. It was found that the new knives outperformed the older knives. The key to the development was interpreted to be careful study of a number of failed knives with different problems used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in organizations, either in the services, or in manufacturing, operating, or administering products, processes, and systems ( Ref 10 ). The intent is to provide not only products and systems that garner high customer satisfaction, but also that increase productivity, reduce costs, and meet delivery requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is to provide not only products and systems that garner high customer satisfaction but also increase productivity, reduce costs, and meet delivery requirements. In general, high quality refers to products and systems manufactured to higher standards, in response to higher expectations of consumers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and design errors, are easier root causes to identify and are more commonly noted in the public domain through lawsuits and newspaper articles. The combination of fast and cheap with the use of low-cost personnel can be disastrous. Design and manufacturing engineers believe they can control the problem...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... thiocyanate/acetone Blue color Identify cobalt-base alloys Copper Dithizone Purple color Sort copper-bearing stainless steels Iron Potassium ferricyanide Blue precipitate Sort low-iron high-temperature alloys Lead Sulfuric acid White precipitate Sort leaded bronze Molybdenum Potassium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive maintenance. References References 1. “Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States,” FHWA-RD-01-156, Federal Highway Administration , 2002 2. Wear and Corrosion , Vol 03.02 , Annual Book of ASTM Standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., economical metal forming technology that can meet the challenging requirements of high specific strength, close dimensional tolerances, and excellent surface finish demanded by the defense and aerospace industries. The relatively low tooling cost and remarkable material utilization due to chipless metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that bearing moved into aerospace applications as a low-cost replacement for American Iron and Steel Institute 440C stainless steel, the primary design requirement changed to fatigue life, and the lack of a hydrogen bake became a violation of processing specifications and a defect. Failures in Physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) has been the workhorse in x-ray spectroscopy because of its low cost, ease of operation and interpretation, and excellent performance. A schematic of a typical silicon-lithium EDS system is shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Schematic of a silicon-lithium energy-dispersive x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of structural components occur rather infrequently, but when they do, they take a heavy toll on human lives in addition to the cost of repairs, replacement, and litigation costs. In 1982, the National Bureau of Standards commissioned a study to determine the direct and indirect cost of fracture in the United...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will not shut off; burns at low level Water overheats (possibly) 7. Gas leaks around valve Gas leaks into room Possible explosion, fire, or gas asphyxiation Source: Ref 23 Fig. 2 Hierarchical representation of the hot water heater and its subsystems Fig. 3 Functional block...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-4%Zr-2%Mo. The specimen was not etched. Fig. 22 Light micrographs depicting (a) excessive and (b) low relief around voids in a braze between an austenitic stainless steel and Monel. The specimen was etched with glyceregia. Fig. 23 Light micrograph showing 6 μm diamond (arrows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... at elevated temperatures, other criteria were used to determine their suitability. Udimet 630 had the highest yield strength (965 MPa, or 140 ksi) with low ductility (6% elongation) and low toughness. Also, it was not readily available and was second most expensive of the three alloys. René 41 was the most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the cost of downtime adds up quickly while operators troubleshoot and swap out worn components. Initially, the quality of the bushings came into question, but after a detailed analysis of the entire crimping mechanism, several other issues emerged that were not previously considered. As a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and Northridge, California ( Ref 15 ) 1994, 1995 Failure occurred in I-beams and columns due to joint configuration and welding practices that resulted in low ductility of the steel. Development of earthquake resistant structures Improved joint designs and welding practices for structural steels Improved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Fig. 30 Correlation of hardness with wear rate for three materials. The two 50 HRC materials both exhibit the same low-stress scratching wear resistance. However, as the wear severity increases, the steel designed for ground-engaging tools (steel A) exhibits moderate improvements in gouging wear...