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low-carbon bearing steels

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of these elements. Rolling-element bearings, whether ball or roller bearings, are fabricated from a wide variety of steels. Conventionally, bearings have been made from both high-carbon (1.0%) and low-carbon (0.2%) steels; the high-carbon steels are used in through-hardened condition, while low-carbon steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Examination of a connecting-rod shell bearing from a six-cylinder gasoline engine was done after it was returned to the factory. Copper-lead alloy SAE 485 bonded to a low-carbon steel backing was used to make the bearing and the oil used in the engine was the recommended one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0090988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... brittle and ductile manner due to overpressurization. The bearing strength of the pipe was likely to be slightly compromised by a low-strength layer of decarburization. The pipe was a moderately cold-worked plain carbon steel. The analysis results indicated that the testing procedure should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... L.L. , Influence of Low-Plasticity Ball Burnishing on the High-Cycle Fatigue Strength of Medium Carbon AISI 1045 Steel , Int. J. Fatigue , Vol 55 , 2013 , p 230 – 244 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2013.06.024 134. Michaud M. and Summers E.D. , Superfinishing Large Planetary Gear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that rely on low-temperature heat treatment for their optimum mechanical properties (for example, most aluminum alloys) are likely to suffer a further type of damage in fretting. Fig. 21 Cross-sectional view of a white layer of martensite produced by fretting of a carbon steel connecting rod. Axial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Rollover accidents in light trucks and cars involving an axle failure frequently raise the question of whether the axle broke causing the rollover or did the axle break as a result of the rollover. Axles in these vehicles are induction hardened medium carbon steel. Bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0048592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of failure. Specifications for the threaded fasteners in the assembly called for 3 8 -24 UNF, SAE, grade 8, hexagon-head cap screws made of medium-carbon alloy steel, quenched and tempered to a hardness of 32 to 38 HRC and a minimum tensile strength of 1034 MPa (150 ksi). Fig. 1 Drive-line...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... crack. Residual liquid metal that has solidified after failure is often found in the crack. The best determinate of LME is the identification phase of metal that exists in the crack after failure. Low carbon steels are known to exhibit LME susceptibility to brass, aluminum bronze, copper, zinc, lead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the core structure showed satisfactory tempered martensite with a uniform distribution of numerous tiny globular carbides in the matrix, typical of a high-carbon chromium ball bearing steel. Fig. 3 Low-magnification optical micrograph of a section across the crater zone, showing the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Chemical analysis revealed that the cap was made from a cast 0.41% carbon steel ( Table 1 ). The steel had a ferritic/pearlitic microstructure and was again decarburized on the surface. The results show that the bearing cap 2L failed by fatigue. The straps then failed. One fractured through its section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the corners of the outer ring and grew large enough for a fracture to occur. cylindrical roller bearing fatigue fracture grease degradation bearing steel leaded brass retained austenite Raman spectroscopy thermogravimetric analysis chemical composition GCr15 (high-carbon chromium-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... SAE 485 bonded to a low-carbon steel backing. The recommended lubrication oil was used in the engine. The length and type of service was not reported. Long bearings are more likely to be misaligned than short bearings. Sharp edge bearings are likely to fail on the edge, particularly when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ppm could develop stress-corrosion failures in steel ( Ref 3 ). This low concentration of H 2 S is well below the normal detectable odor level. The probability of generating H 2 S and water within the confined region of the bearing cap bolt chamber was increased by the bearing inspection procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... versus fretting cycles for mild steel under gross slip 90 μm displacement amplitude in both dry air and nitrogen atmosphere. Adapted from Ref 74 Fig. 21 (a) Evolution of wear rate of a flat-on-flat low-alloyed steel contact as a function of the mean contact pressure for gross slip fretting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
..., the HAZ, and the flange cross section at low magnification. Of particular significance is the light-shaded layer about midway between the top and bottom surfaces of the flange. This was a region of carbon segregation where chemical analysis showed the steel to contain 0.34% C and 1.16% Mn. Near...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to a temperature above the melting point of the brass journal bearing and must be under a stressed condition. Experiments were performed with 13-mm ( 1 2 -in.) diam medium-carbon steel, loaded as cantilever beams. Samples heated to 925 °C (1700 °F) ran for hours without failure at 1750 rpm. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... noted: The outer container test welds (welds intended for evaluation by radiography [RT] and metallography) used a surrogate inner container fabricated from carbon steel pipe and aluminum bar (CS/Al) ( Fig. 3 ). The development welds used a stainless steel (SS) surrogate. The outer containers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., were also present on the balls. Fig. 7 Balls showing smearing, deformation, and spalling Materials The material of the inner race, outer race, bearing balls, and cage was identified by energy- dispersive spectroscopy, and the carbon and sulfur content was determined by using a carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... carbon levels and presence of additional manganese to boost the hardenability of the steel. Current steels with less susceptibility to this segregation are available. There are local areas on both crankshafts that experienced enough friction and heat from journal and bearing damage to cause hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., chemical vapor deposition, and thermal spraying (TS). It provides a background to RCF in bearing steels in order to develop an understanding of failure modes in overlay coatings. The article describes the underpinning failure mechanisms of TiN and diamond-like carbon coatings. It presents an insight...