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low alloy steel (low alloy steel, general)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Graphitization, the formation of graphite nodules in carbon and low alloy steels, contributes to many failures in high-temperature environments. Three such failures in power-generating systems were analyzed to demonstrate the unpredictable nature of this failure mechanism and its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-dependent nature (incubation period) for embrittlement by hydrogen is also why it is most noticeable at low strain rates. Internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement has also been observed in a wide variety of other materials, including nickel-base alloys and austenitic stainless steels, provided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... it is most noticeable at low strain rates. Internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement has also been observed in a wide variety of other materials, including nickel-base alloys and austenitic stainless steels, provided they are severely charged with hydrogen. However, most attention has been given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., the fillet weld, and the cover. The structure was found to contain a zone of brittle martensite in the portion of the weld adjacent to the low-carbon steel handle; fracture had occurred in this zone. Sufficient heat had been generated during welding to fuse an excessive amount of the carbon steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of chromium-molybdenum steels ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy image of fracture surface of nickel-base alloy (Inconel 751, annealed and aged) after stress rupture (730 °C, or 1350 °F; 380 MPa, or 55 ksi; 125 h). (a) Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the grain boundary surface. It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of chromium-molybdenum steels ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 3 SEM image of fracture surface of nickel-base alloy (Inconel 751, annealed and aged) after stress rupture (730 °C, or 1350 °F; 380 MPa, or 55 ksi; 125 h). (a) Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... to such stresses together with the low purity favored the fracture of the tool. Cracking (fracturing) Forming dies High speed tool steels Segregations DMo5 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Figure 1 shows a general view of the piece of the broken cross-recessed die under examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... martensite with a hardness of 65 HRC to a depth of 0.025 to 0.050 mm (0.001 to 0.002 in.) ( Fig. 6b ). Fig. 6 Surface layer microstructure generated during low-stress and abusive grinding of AISI 4340 steel. (a) Surface layers were not altered during low-stress grinding. (b) White layer formed during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel chemical analysis copper alloys crack initiation crack propagation duplex stainless steel ferritic stainless steel fracture surface characteristics low alloy steel macroscopic examination magnesium alloys maraging steel martensitic stainless steel metallographic analysis metalworking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A cast dragline bucket tooth failed by fracturing after a short time in service. The tooth was made of medium-carbon low-alloy steel heat treated to a hardness of 555 HRB. The fracture surface was covered with chevron marks. These converged at several sites on the surface of the tooth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. 350×. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... industries: Carbon, low-alloy, stainless steel, and nickel alloy process piping and vessels Manufacturing: Steel components subjected to caustic environments in pulp and paper equipment, sensitized stainless steel piping in food processing or dairy industries Power generation: Alloy steel used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A high-pressure steam pipe specified to be P22 low-alloy steel failed after 25 years of service. Located at the end of the steam line, the pipe reportedly received no steam flow during normal service. Visual examination of the failed pipe section revealed a window fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steels are generally passive, but surface pitting may occur in chloride-containing environments. Nickel-base alloys can be expected to have superior corrosion resistance, as compared to stainless steel alloys ( Ref 41 ). Clay containing aluminum silicate may inhibit chloride-related corrosion by raising...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of creep °C °F T as ratio of T M , K Aluminum alloys 150–200 300–400 0.48–0.54 T M Titanium alloys 315 600 0.3 T M Low-alloy steels 370 700 0.36 T M Austenitic, iron-base, heat-resisting alloys 540 1000 0.49 T M Nickel- and cobalt-base heat-resisting alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A cast dragline bucket tooth failed by fracturing after a short time in service. The tooth was made of medium-carbon low-alloy steel heat treated to a hardness of 555 HRB. The fracture surface was covered with chevron marks. These converged at several sites on the surface of the tooth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at grain boundaries, particularly at elevated temperature or under conditions that cause grain-boundary embrittlement, and at twin boundaries. Fig. 2 Close-up view of ratchet marks between distinct surface origin sites in an 18.4 cm (7.25 in.) low-alloy steel shaft that failed in rotating-bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The drive shaft in a marine propulsion system broke, stranding a large vessel along the Canadian seacoast. The shaft was made from quenched and tempered low-alloy steel. Fractographic investigation revealed that the shaft failed under low rotating-bending variable stress. Fatigue...