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long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The high pressures used in such processes as injection molding can both reduce some of the effects of shrinkage, by packing out the mold, and cause distortion of the product, by increasing internal stresses. With glass-fiber-reinforced materials, shrinkage of the resin away from the surface during molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... techniques are used to produce polymer fibers. Such fibers have substantially greater stiffness and strength along their length than do the unoriented polymers from which they are manufactured. This is because special processing has been used to orient the covalent bonds of an appropriate long-chain polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a significant influence on the S - N curves of polymers, and they should be considered when a component is made of polymers. Fiber type, orientation, distribution, and content are important parameters affecting fatigue properties in short-fiber (glass/carbon)-reinforced thermoplastic composites ( Ref 19...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... reinforcements to increase the mechanical properties of the material. The most common reinforcement is glass fiber, but carbon fiber, wood fiber, and aramid fiber also are used. It is recommended that these reinforcements be investigated as options when enhanced properties are needed. However, the use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the abrasive and adhesive wear failure of several types of reinforced polymers, including particulate-reinforced polymers, short-fiber reinforced polymers (SFRP), continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), particulate-filled composites, mixed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or mechanical property as a function of temperature or time at a constant temperature or as a function of temperature. This dependency allows access to processing and performance information relating to resins and fiber-reinforced composites and can be used for quality assurance, process control, and new...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... fabric filler 25–65 4–9.5 0.4–0.6 6–9 0.87–1 100–160 15–23 60–100 9–15 95–120 HRM PF, cast, no filler 40–65 6–9.5 1.5–2.0 3 0.43 85–115 12–17 75–115 11–17 93–120 HRM Polyester, glass-fiber filler 35–65 5–9.5 … 11–14 1.6–2.0 140–175 20–25 95–115 14–17 … UF, alpha...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... level of crystallinity resulting from poor processing practices using this technique. Fiber reinforcement and mineral fillers are often incorporated into polymers to enhance some of their properties or to lower the cost. If a different grade of material with a lower or a higher level...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the statistical reproducibility/repeatability of commercial and proprietary testing laboratories is participation in the ASTM Proficiency Testing Program. This program involves a semiannual characterization of commonly reported (amorphous, semicrystalline, and mineral-filled or glass fiber-reinforced) commodity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and behave more Fickian as the hinderance coefficient approaches 1. Melo et al. ( Ref 10 ) utilized the Langmuir model in their modelling study to predict the absorption behavior of composites reinforced with vegetable fiber using constant and variable diffusion coefficients. The thicknesses of the water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the short glass fibers (SGFs) content. The holes produced on the surface are the result of SGFs pulling out due to poor adhesion between SGFs and the PES matrix ( Ref 27 ). In general, SFRP composites show better resistance to abrasive wear compared with long, continuous fiber-reinforced composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of accelerated life testing and aging of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced plastic materials for assessing long-term material properties and life expectancy in hostile service environments. It considers various environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, weathering, liquid chemicals (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) fiber/filament, and (d) profile Typical Materials and Their Properties Materials to be used in extrusion are typically thermoplastics with high viscosities (low melt index) and high melt strengths. The typical melt flow index (MFI) for extruded thermoplastics ranges from <1 to ~10 g/10 min...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are usually added to thermoplastics, whereas very long fibers may be incorporated into thermosetting plastics ( Ref 3 , 5 – 7 , 13 – 15 ). Fillers with other morphologies and shape factors than fibers can impact the properties of plastic materials and should be considered on a case-by-case basis when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials. The inspection of these components is substantially different from that of later fiber-reinforced material systems. It was the rapid growth of the composites industry, in both material types and applications, that spawned the need for effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as a fiber, plastic, or elastomer ( Fig. 1 ), depending on the relative strength of intermolecular bonds and molecular structure or geometry. Noncrystalline polymers with weak intermolecular forces are usually elastomers or rubbers at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, T g . In contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) Source: Ref 19 Orientation Straining of polymers can result in stretched areas of parallel, linear, partially ordered structures, as shown in Fig. 5(c) . This uniaxial orientation results from forming processes such as fiber spinning, pipe and profile extrusion, and flat-film extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a given condition is primarily governed by chain flexibility, which in turn is determined by its backbone and the size and shape of the side groups and their spatial organization. Polymers can act as a fiber, plastic, or elastomer ( Fig. 1 ), depending on the relative strength of intermolecular bonds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dimensional changes. Method Standard solid samples evaluated via TMA should be of regular shape, having two flat, parallel sides. Additionally, fiber and film samples can also be tested with minimal preparation. Experiments conducted to evaluate expansion and contraction of solid materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with low molecular weight and thus low viscosity, so they are amenable to dispensing, impregnating woven or nonwoven materials (such as glass- or carbon-fiber reinforcements), or processing into adhesives, films, coatings, or encapsulants. DSC of Uncured Formulations A simple DSC survey scan...