1-20 of 33 Search Results for

log normal distribution

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situation, including the loads and the distribution of stresses within the configuration. Is there an additional load/stress that was not included in the analysis, which changes the stress distribution? Or is the stress analysis incorrect? In many cases, however, stress analysis alone is not sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... influence creep behavior, as discussed in the section “Metallurgical Instabilities” in this article. Stress-Rupture Stress-rupture tests evaluate rupture strength by determining the time to fracture as a function of temperature and applied stress. Logarithmic (log-log) plots of normal stress (σ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the starting and stopping of the compressor over the life of the product. To accelerate the test, the pressures in the system are increased, stated as low and high side pressure. Typical high and low side pressures under normal conditions are 10 kgf/cm 2 and 0 kgf/cm 2 (designated 10/0), respectively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the normal tertiary stage was reached, resulting in a second period of steady-state creep and later, another period of last-stage creep ( Ref 9 ). This behavior is due to oxide strengthening, which prolonged rupture life and caused a slope decrease in curves of log stress versus log rupture life. Oxides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... useful in estimating the size of the remote stress field 7.6 mm (0.3 in.) from the main surface. Fig. 1 Schematic stress distribution showing a maximum stress at 7.6 mm (0.3 in.) from the shaft surface. Fig. 2 Schematic stress distribution on plane normal to the oil hole 7.6 mm (0.3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... has its own notation, Φ( z ), that is, F Z ( z ) = P ( Z ≤ z ) = Φ( z ). Lognormal Distribution Let X be a random variable. If Y = log X is normally distributed, then X is said to be lognormally distributed. To compute probabilities when X is lognormal: P ( X ≤ x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... at 800 °C and different crosshead speeds Tests conducted at 800 °C using different strain rates Table 1 Tests conducted at 800 °C using different strain rates L 0 (mm) V t (mm/min) σ y (MPa) A (%) ε ̇ s − 1 Log ε ̇ Log (σ y ) Non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Analysis of Wall-Thinning Rate of Bent Pipe by Liquid Droplet Impingement Erosion , Eng. Fail. Anal. , Vol 62 , 2016 , p 306 – 315 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2016.01.005 50. Ferng Y.M. , Predicting Local Distributions of Erosion-Corrosion Wear Sites for the Piping in the Nuclear Power Plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The contrast difference in the BSE image represents the difference in atomic number between particles, revealing a variance in composition distribution and clearly highlighting the precipitates which have different chemical composition. Precipitates or enrichment points of alloy elements are usually rich...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Records of operating conditions and preventive maintenance for a component that has failed, and for the system as a whole, are relatively good sources of background information. These records can provide valuable information, such as operating temperature and pressure, normal power output, fluctuations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of their number density, average size, shape, spacing, orientation, and the distributions of these parameters, as required. Fractography by SEM is also useful for estimation of the fractions of fracture surface area generated due to different failure mechanisms, such as cleavage fracture, ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The shaft loadings were applied on the finite element model: a twisting torque was simulated by applying tangential forces on the spline teeth secured with jawed coupling, and a bending moment was modeled by applying a distributive force normal to the outer surface of shaft secured with the pinion gear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (hundreds of degrees above normal), to the point where deformation or yielding occurs. Overheating results from abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant flow and excessive temperature excursion. In general, short-term overheating failures involve considerable deformation in the form of metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...., Gauss, Weibull, logit, arc sin p ) and the failure probability. Table 2 shows u -values for different failure probabilities for the most often applied Gauss log distribution. Safety span for different failure probabilities (Gauss log distribution) Table 2 Safety span for different...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... The vane had developed a well defined crack in the airfoil section, Figure 2 . The airfoil had also suffered a considerable amount of erosion along the leading edge area and general pitting of the concave surface. At the time of the vane removal, the engine (no. 2) had logged 5500 h of running time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... [ 1 ]. Therein, the cylindrical roller bearing, prototype of which in the form of logs with a large stone block on them could even date back to ancient Egyptian era, possesses its popularity in applications that are always involved with heavy radial loading and high-speed operation, such as power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in another location, it has to do so because the local stress (residual and/or applied) was higher than along the centerline, although there may be exceptions. Some exceptions include the random distribution of fine quench cracks in steels at locations where martensite formed after quenching or the cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Figure 11 shows S - N data for notched ( K t = 2.0) 4130 steel under axial loading. An equivalent stress equation ( Ref 31 ) that fits the data is: log ( N ) = 17.1 − 6.49   log   ( S eq ) where S eq = S max (1 − R ) 0.86 . Since R = 0 for all loading equations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) as the formation of chromium carbide precipitates in the grain boundaries and the resultant depletion of chromium, brought about by heating the steel in the temperature range 500–800°C ( 1 , 2 ). This temperature range is easily achieved during the welding process where the normal temperature of welding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... May obliterate beach marks Deformed draw marks, rolling scratches If twisted, indicates torsion loading Machining marks (normal to axis of component) Not distorted in torsion loading Variable roughness of fracture edge In brittle bending, rough side is tension side Microscale...