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localized corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... corrosive attack in the stained areas. The remaining portions of the valve surface and other metal parts that had also been in contact with the liquid appeared bright and unaffected. Examination at low magnification confirmed the presence of severe highly localized attack in the stained areas. The valve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... surface. The findings suggested salt or salt water had leaked into the sensor and caused localized corrosion to the wire, possibly at an area where preexisting damage was present in the coating. Separation occurred in the wire when the current density at the reduced cross section caused excessive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... The lack of resistance to pitting corrosion associated with the poor surface finishing of the stainless steel jewelry may induce localized corrosion, promoting the release of cytotoxic metallic ions (such as Cr, Ni, and Mo) in the local tissue, which can promote several types of adverse effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that experienced the same service conditions developed no corrosion. Corrosion was linked to forming defects that provided sites for localized corrosion, and to lack of steam drying after cleaning, which increased susceptibility to general corrosion. Corrosion products Hydroxides Potassium compounds Steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract Fractures and a crack occurred in a length of excavator boom rope. Failure took place at regions where local corrosion was evident. Microscopic examination of longitudinal sections disclosed that the majority of the cracks were broad, these being typical of corrosion-fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A failed H-11 tool steel pylon attachment stud was found during a routine walk-around inspection. The stud exhibited gross localized corrosion pitting at several different areas on its surface. Light general rust was also evident. Severe pitting occurred near the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Schematic of heat-exchanger system, showing the areas of various types of corrosive attack on the inside surfaces of the tubes Fig. 2 Typical localized corrosion on inside surface of a tube along the edges of the weld seam. 3.04× Fig. 3 Typical section through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that the thread and nut were 4140 steel. Scanning electron fractographic examination of the fracture initiation site strongly suggested that the fracture progressed by fatigue. It was concluded that the failure of the horizontal hinge pin initiated at areas of localized corrosion pits. The pits in turn initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the situation by providing a strong local corrosion cell in the form of a sacrificial anode region adjacent to the cracked thread. The enhanced generation of hydrogen in a corrosive environment subsequently lead to HASC of the wheel studs. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Hydrogen Damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of localized corrosion and propagating by fatigue. The cause of the pitting/cracking was related to the unit's copper species in solution. Boilers Nuclear reactor components Stress-corrosion cracking Welded joints ASTM 302 grade B UNS K12022 Corrosion fatigue Background Visual Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the failure zone. The physical cause of the hose failure was by severe localized corrosion of the layer of reinforcing braid wire at the transition between the coupling and the hose at the end of the ferrule. This caused a reduction of the wire cross-sectional area to the extent that the wires broke. Once...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Severe pitting corrosion of a carbon steel tube was observed in the air preheater of a power plant, which runs on rice straw firing. Approximately 1450 tubes were removed from Stage 3 of the preheater (air inlet and flue gas outlet) due to corrosion and local bursting. Samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... an aggressive chemistry is allowed to develop and attack local surfaces. threaded fasteners corrosion chemical exposure stainless steel improper materials SEM analysis composition A193-B8S (manganese-silicon austenitic stainless steel) UNS S21800 A194 (chromium-molybdenum alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., severe localized corrosion has led to failures within three years of service. An investigation of MIC in these systems used on-line monitoring techniques and found elevated numbers of SRB in both the water phase (10 7 cells mL −1 ) and in a surface biofilm (10 5 cells mL −1 ) ( Ref 3 ). A chlorination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... or no loss in wall thickness due to corrosion or scaling, and the tube wall was thinned to a knife edge at the rupture. Metallographic examination showed the condition of the material was satisfactory. The failure was mechanical in nature, typical of short time creep rupture. The localized oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... method for the cladding was unknown. Visual and metallographic analyses indicated that the failure was from transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (TGSCC), which caused extensive cracking and spalling of the cladding and was localized in a segment of the bottom cone. The remainder of the digester...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the more active metal. The reverse situation—large anodic areas coupled to small cathodic areas—produces very little galvanic current. This is why imperfections or holidays in protective coatings may lead to severe galvanic corrosion in the localized region of the coating imperfection. It is extremely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... “cavitation erosion” and “Cavitation corrosion” have arisen to describe the effect. With the former, it is considered that shock impact on the metal surface produces local stresses in excess of the fatigue limit of the material. Cracks develop and, ultimately, small particles of metal become detached...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... appears to be the result of a combination of pitting and stress corrosion, most likely due to chlorides. The factory was recommended to use molybdenum-alloyed steels (type 18/10 or 18/12) which are more resistant to local disruption of passivating films and pitting than molybdenum-free types such as 18/8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0007736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Single 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) post-tensioning wires failed in a parking garage in the southern portion of the United States. Several failed wires were removed and the lengths were examined for signs of corrosion using SEM metallography. The scans showed localized shallow pitting...