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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Distortion failure occurs when a structure or component is deformed so that it can no longer support the load it was intended to carry. Every structure has a load limit beyond which it is considered unsafe or unreliable. Estimation of load limits is an important aspect of design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with a functional failure. Then, a more general consideration of distortion in failure analysis is introduced. Several common aspects of failure by distortion are discussed and suitable examples of distortion failures are presented for illustration. The article provides information on methods to compute load limits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...-lb) load. The included angle between the two 13-mm ( 1 2 -in.) diam chains was 60┬░. The service life of the sling was 2 1 2 years. Investigation The safe load limit for each leg of the sling was 2630 kg (5800 lb). The hook broke at the junction of the eye and shank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... made from 16-mm ( 5 8 -in.) diam 4615 steel broke while lowering a 9070-kg (10-ton) load of billets into a rail car. The acceptable load limit of the chain was approximately 13,600 kg (15 ton). The chain had been in service for 13 months. Because of the large number of chains in service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... was removed in an effort to reduce cost and hence the shaft was subjected to increased vibration and shock loading. Insufficient fatigue limit of the shaft was revealed by fatigue testing of the shafts taken from stock in a rotating-beam machine. As a corrective measure, the fatigue limit of shafts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... suggested that rainwater accumulation on the roof was more responsible for the failure than wind, including tornadoes. The total amount of water loading was limited in design by the pitch of the roof and the height of the small lip erected along the perimeter of the roof to minimize loss of gravel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... The shaft surface both near and in the keyways indicated fretting which greatly reduced the fatigue limit of the shaft metal and initiated fatigue cracks. Fatigue marks were observed on the fractured key. Repetitive impact loading was responsible for propagation of the cracks. The high cyclic bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A 17-4 PH steering actuator rod end body broke during normal take-off. Results of failure analysis revealed that the wall thickness of the race was much below the design limits, thus causing the race to rest on the body's swaged edges rather than on the load carrying centerline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... over the fatigue limit of the material. A strain gage static loading test verified FEM results, and finite element techniques were applied in the design of reinforcing members to renovate the frames. Material properties were determined and welding procedures specified for the reinforcing members...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to either ductile or brittle fracture or to fracture by fatigue from repeated overstressing. Figure 1 shows a steel wire rope that fractured in tension due to overloading. With a fatigue type of failure, the member will usually fail at a load well below its specified load limit; thus, a false sense...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to 6400 h of operation. Investigation (visual inspection, metallographic examination, and stress analysis) supported the conclusion that the differing microstructure of the airfoil resulted in changes in mechanical properties. Because normal operation includes cycling of loads and temperatures, the shroud...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... It was found that gear 1 had a lower hardness than specified while the case hardness of gear 2 was found to be within limits. Both the pitting and the wear pattern were revealed to be more severe on gear 1 than on gear 2. Surface-contact fatigue (pitting) of gear 1 (cause of lower carbon content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... calculations to be very close to the maximum allowable fluctuating stress for the material. The wiper springs were concluded to be fractured in fatigue and the cyclic loading resulted from cam rotation. The maximum applied stress approached the allowable limit due to high stress-concentration factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
.... The fracture originated as a consequence of stress intensification at the edge of a screw hole located just above the bone fracture; several fatigue cracks were also observed on the opposite side of the screw hole edge. The crack propagated in a brittle-like fashion after a limited number of cycles under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A new crane failed during the overload test following erection. A test load of 5 tons at the end of the jib (rated capacity 4 tons) was in the process of being slewed at the time of this failure. Inspection revealed that the collapse had resulted from the opening out of one eye...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several case-hardened and zinc-plated carbon-manganese steel wheel studs fractured in a brittle manner after very limited service life. The fracture surfaces of both front and rear studs showed no sign of fatigue beach marks or deformation in the form of shear lips that would indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques and discusses the advantages and limitations of each technique when used in failure analysis. The focus is on various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. The testing types covered include uniaxial tension testing, uniaxial compression testing, bend testing, hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and cool oil makes it possible to load gear surfaces to stresses approaching the critical limit of the gear metal without failure of the lubricating film. The maximum load that can be carried by gear teeth also depends on the velocity of sliding between the surfaces, because the heat generated varies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Fundamentals of fatigue failure are outlined. Addressed are fatigue crack characteristics, basic crack types, unidirectional bending, alternate bending, rotary bending, torsion, direct stress, and combined stress. Stress cycle, endurance limits, under and overstressing, stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2