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liquid-vapor metal coolants

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., As, Sb VIa S, Se, Te Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement Liquid metal induced embrittlement is caused by adsorption of an embrittling material (liquid or sometimes vapor) with low solubility in the base material. Combinations of liquid metals that cause LMIE in base metals/alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... : 136 47. Kamdar M.H. , Liquid Metal Embrittlement , Corrosion , Vol 13 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1987 , p 171 – 184 48. Fontana M.G. and Greene N.D. , Corrosion Engineering , 2nd ed. , McGraw-Hill , 1978 , p 294 49. Bradley E.F. , Ed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... near 500 °C (930 °F). This division does overlap, as described further in Ref 4 , but it is used to describe impurity-induced embrittlement. Liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) is caused by adsorption of an embrittling material (liquid or sometimes vapor) with low solubility in the base...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the area of U-bends in the tubes. Impingement attack, or erosion-corrosion, occurs where gases, vapors, or liquids impinge on metal surfaces at high velocities. The erosive action removes protective films from localized areas at the metal surface, thereby contributing to the formation of differential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....) Environmentally induced cracking is an umbrella term that includes SCC, hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, and corrosion fatigue. Although there are factors common among the different forms of EIC, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. For more information, refer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 4 -Na 2 SO 4 or NiSO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 liquids via reaction of CoO or NiO with SO 2 . Courtesy of Z. Tang and B. Gleeson, University of Pittsburgh Fig. 23 Effect of molten salt on hot corrosion at 700 °C (1290 °F) in air. With the lower melting temperatures of salt mixtures, the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not have sufficient capacity to carry away all of this steam. The resulting accumulation created a steam pocket and a vapor/liquid interface at a level opposite the 910 °C (1670 °F) interior of the converter, and leaks developed at and near the level of the interface. Removal and examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., by virtue of its physical size and location, is often difficult to detect. These factors combine to make localized corrosion mechanisms insidious. If undetected they can lead to catastrophic system failures. Certain environments induce specific corrosion failure modes. Hydrogen damage, liquid- and solid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at all heat-flux levels. However, the resistance of a vapor film in steam of low quality is relatively high; therefore, at the onset of film boiling, a large temperature difference between the tube wall and the bulk fluid is required to sustain a high heat flux across the film. The effect of the onset...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... size and location, is often difficult to detect. These factors combine to make localized corrosion mechanisms insidious. If undetected, they can lead to catastrophic system failures. Certain environments induce specific corrosion failure modes. Hydrogen damage, liquid- and solid-metal-induced...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress, 0 to 380 MPa (0 to 55 ksi); contact stress, 40 MPa (6 ksi); fretting cycles, 10 5 . Sample was nital etched and viewed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One development has been die, rapid quenching of liquid metals to produce amorphous metals. Fretting of two of these materials, Co...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... results. The metal within the notch is affected by the shrinkage of the metal around it, due to slower cooling within the slot caused by vaporization of the quenchant. Therefore, on cooling, the metal on the side with the shaft is “too short,” pulling the shaft out of alignment. A general rule for solving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... below the clamping assembly) Fig. 5 Fretting wear damage in electrical connectors Fig. 6 Illustration of fretting wear damage between a bone cement and a metallic femoral stem. Adapted from Ref 36 Fig. 7 Schematic of a basic fretting wear test and related fretting cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., resulting in local vaporization of metal and the production of craters and pits. This spark-erosion effect frequently gives rise to rapid vibrations that assist in producing the characteristic fluting effect. In some instances, under high magnification, it is possible to observe the burned or fused metal...