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liquid-to-solid phase transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process is called...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a particularly important feature is the CaO/SiO 2 ratio and its effect on the quantities of low-temperature phases to be expected. Oxidation and Reduction Behavior As for melting or solid-liquid reactions, the thermodynamic calculations of gas-solid reactions are a powerful tool for describing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Particle Impingement on Ductile Materials , Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. Erosion by Liquid and Solid Impact , University of Cambridge , 1983 , p 38-1 to 38-10 55. Antonov M. and Hussainova I. , Cermets Surface Transformation under Erosive and Abrasive Wear , Tribol. Int. , Vol 43...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overload fracture can be influenced by various time- or temperature-dependent mechanisms, such as fatigue, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), liquid-metal embrittlement, solid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen embrittlement, and creep. In addition, transgranular cracks also can, at some point, follow a grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and resultant (b) solid elastic strain, (c) purely viscous liquid strain, (d) viscoelastic solid strain response. The colors represent: (red) as “solid elastic” material response; (green) as “purely viscous liquid” response; (blue) as “viscoelastic solid” response Fig. 4 Representative diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, solid metal embrittlement, oxidation or reduction potentially in the grain boundaries, radiation embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. Because the appearance of IG fracture is relatively easy to recognize, and because the causes are fairly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at 650 °C (1200 °F) Figure 16 and 17 ( Ref 14 ) show the example of stress relief by tempering. A solid cylinder, 40 mm (1.6 in.) in diameter and 100 mm (4 in.) in length, was examined for analyses and experiments of tempering performed after water quenching. Calculated residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... points, usually impurities or segregates located in grain boundaries, begin to melt. Liquid films then form around the grain boundaries, which freeze when the alloy is cooled. As the liquid freezes, it contracts and leaves an envelope of porosity around the grain boundaries. This degrades the mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blowers—is an important phase of on-site examination. It is usually helpful for the individual making the on-site examination to have an assortment of plastic bags or paper envelopes in which samples can be placed. Identification of each sample, with its location and orientation marked on photographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The article also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for analyzing crystal phases and structures in solid materials. References References 1. Mark J.E. , Eisenberg A. , Graessley W. , Mandelkern L. , and Koenig J. , “ Physical Properties of Polymers ,” paper presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between hcp and bcc materials can vary depending on temperature and available slip systems. Rhombohedral Less symmetrical through triclinic Influence of degree of order (most to least ductile) Random solid solution Ordered or intermetallic compound Ionic compound Covalent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., viscous modulus, tan delta Temperature-dependent behavior, aging/degradation, solid-liquid interactions Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Weight-average molecular weight, molecular weight distribution Degradation, suitability of material for use Melt flow rate (MFR) Melt viscosity Degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are similar to vapor cloud explosions except that the fuel is a finely divided solid that is dispersed instead of a gas/vapor. Examples of potential dust explosion applications include grain silos, sawdust, particulates from polymer materials, and metallic materials. Typically, the dust is confined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in iron at different temperatures is shown in Fig. 9 ( Ref 12 ). As can be seen, the amount of hydrogen uptake in steel in the liquid phase is relatively large. When austenite starts to form during cooling, the solubility of atomic hydrogen drops. Upon continuous cooling, and continuing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thermoset with degree of conversion α = 1 Fig. 10 Idealized time-temperature-transformation cure diagram. A plot of the times to gelation and vitrification during isothermal cure versus temperature delineates the regions of four distinct states of matter: liquid, gelled rubber, gelled glass...